Julius Germanus : Orientalis Hungaria Masuk Islam 

Julius Germanus : Orientalis Hungaria Masuk Islam

Sabtu, 02 Mei 2009 08:51 publisher

InpasOnline,9/05/09

Dr. Abdul Karim Germanus (1884-1979) adalah seorang orientalis terkemuka asal Hungaria dan juga seorang akademisi yang telah mendunia. Perjalanan spiritual Abdul Karim Germanus (dulu bernama Julius Germanus) mencari Islam menyita hampir separuh perjalanan hidupnya. Dia menghabiskan sepanjang hidupnya untuk mempertahankan Islam dan bahasa Arab. Selepas melewati masa-masa sulit semasa remaja dan lepas dari belenggu tradisi, dia kemudian tertarik untuk mempelajari Islam.

InpasOnline,9/05/09

Dr. Abdul Karim Germanus (1884-1979) adalah seorang orientalis terkemuka asal Hungaria dan juga seorang akademisi yang telah mendunia. Perjalanan spiritual Abdul Karim Germanus (dulu bernama Julius Germanus) mencari Islam menyita hampir separuh perjalanan hidupnya. Dia menghabiskan sepanjang hidupnya untuk mempertahankan Islam dan bahasa Arab. Selepas melewati masa-masa sulit semasa remaja dan lepas dari belenggu tradisi, dia kemudian tertarik untuk mempelajari Islam.

Germanus menggambarkan kisah keislamannya itu sebagai “bangunnya sebuah kehidupan baru.” Disebutkan, awal perkenalannya dengan Islam adalah di Turki pada saat menjadi mahasiswa di sana.

Kemudian, dia pergi ke India untuk mengajar di sana, pada masa Perang Dunia I. Dan di negeri Bollywood itulah dia mengucapkan dua kalimah syahadah. Selepas bertugas di India Germanus kembali ke Hungaria dan diangkat sebagai profesor di sana. Dia sering beradu argumentasi dengan para profesor dan orientalis Hungaria, terutama tentang kebenaran Islam. Berikut kisah perjalanan hidup salah satu legenda Muslim di Hungaria ini yang diambil dari beberapa sumber.

Awal perjalanan

Germanus lahir di Budapes, ibukota Hungaria pada tahun 1884 dan dibesarkan dalam nuansa Kristen taat. Segera setelah lulus dari Universitas Budapes, dia memutuskan untuk mengambil spesialisasi bahasa Turki. Selanjutnya pada tahun 1903 dia pergi ke Istanbul. Dia diterima di Universitas Istanbul dan mengambil program studi bahasa Turki. Selama bertahun-tahun tinggal di sana akhirnya dia menjadi fasih baik dalam hal percakapan, membaca maupun menulis.

Selama di Istanbul, Germanus juga belajar Al-Quran berikut terjemahan dalam bahasa Turki. Itulah perkenalan awalnya dengan Islam. Dengan kemampuannya yang tinggi dalam membaca terjemahan Al-Quran berbahasa Turki, membuatnya mudah memahami Islam langsung dari sumber aslinya. Tak hanya itu, dia juga membandingkan terjemahan dalam beberapa bahasa lainnya. Sebuah upaya yang lazim dilakukan oleh misionaris Kristen untuk mengkaji kelemahan Islam.

Namun Germanus justru tertarik dengan Islam. Termotivasi dengan kebenaran agama Islam, dia memutuskan untuk melakukan penelitian yakni menelusuri apa saja yang telah ditulis oleh orang-orang Kristen tentang Islam dan membandingkannya dengan sumber aslinya yaitu Al-Quran dan Sunnah Nabi. Dia melakukan berbagai upaya. Misalnya dengan membaca terjemahan kitab-kitab hadis dalam rangka mempelajari perkataan-perkataan Nabi Muhammad SAW.

Bertengkar  dengan profesor

Germanus kembali ke Hungaria dan berjumpa dengan beberapa eks profesornya di Universitas Budapes. Mereka punya reputasi hebat sebagai orientalis. Namun sering menyampaikan pemikiran-pemikiran yang menyimpang tentang Islam. Germanus berdebat dengan para profesor itu. Dia menceritakan karakter sesungguhnya dari sosok Nabi Muhammad SAW. Uraiannya didasarkan pada berbagai hadis yang dia ketahui. Setelah puas “bertengkar” dengan para profesornya, Germanus memutuskan belajar bahasa Arab lebih mendalam lagi. Germanus memang punya bakat besar di bidang bahasa. Buktinya, dalam jangka waktu singkat dia sudah mahir berbahasa Arab. Belum puas, dia juga belajar bahasa Persia.

Tahun 1912, Germanus diangkat sebagai profesor bahasa Arab, Persia dan Turki di Hungarian Royal Academy di Budapes. Dia juga mengasuh mata kuliah Sejarah Islam. Selanjutnya dia memimpin Department of Oriental studies pada Budapest University of Economics.

Bersyahadah di India

Pada tahun 1928, setelah bekerja beberapa lama di University of Budapest, sastrawan dan penerima Nobel terkemuka asal Bangladesh (dulu masih bernama India -red) Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) mengundang Germanus untuk mengajar sekaligus memimpin program Islamic Studies di Visva-Bharati University. Germanus bermukim di India selama beberapa tahun dan disana pula dia menemukan cahaya Islam. Prosesi syahadahnya berlangsung di Mesjid Agung Delhi dan dia berganti nama menjadi Abdul Karim. Universitas tempat dia bekerja tak mendiskriminasikannya gara-gara masuk Islam. Bahkan dia mendapat kelonggaran, misalnya untuk menunaikan shalat Jumat ke mesjid.

Keinginan Germanus yang kuat untuk mendalami Islam dan menyelami sifat-sifat khas Muslim telah mempertemukannya dengan salah satu pujangga Islam tersohor asal Pakistan yakni Muhammad Iqbal. Rasa ingin tahu Germanus yang begitu tinggi hingga dia sering terlibat pembicaraan hingga berjam-jam lamanya. Tak hanya itu, mereka juga sering berdiskusi tentang aktifitas para orientalis dan misionaris Kristen.

Germanus dan Iqbal punya pandangan berbeda tentang aktifitas misionaris Kristen. Menurut Germanus, propaganda yang disebarkan oleh para misionaris Kristen di Eropa sebagai sebuah masalah pelik yang mengkhawatirkan. Sementara Iqbal justru melihat masalah sesungguhnya ada pada orang Islam sendiri. Iqbal menyebut kesatuan Muslim yang lemah yang membuat Islam mudah diombang-ambing.

Belajar bahasa Arab klasik

Kecintaan Germanus pada bahasa Arab telah membawanya ke Kairo, tempat dimana dia kemudian belajar bahasa Arab klasik. Satu ketika, pada saat pertama kali menjejakkan kakinya di pelabuhan Alexandria, dia mengaku sangat terkejut dengan respon yang diberikan oleh penduduk setempat. Mereka pada tertawa mendengar bahasa Arab Germanus. Bukan apa-apa, karena dia berbicara dengan menggunakan bahasa Arab klasik atau kuno!

Mereka, warga Alexandria, berbincang dengan memakai dialek setempat hingga Germanus tak mampu mencerna apa yang mereka ucapkan. Kontan dia merasa marah dan berteriak lantang, “Saya kemari untuk belajar bahasa Al-Quran dari Anda! Kenapa kalian justru menertawakan dan mengejek saya?”

Selama di Mesir, Germanus menjalin hubungan erat dengan penulis terkenal negeri kuda nil itu yakni Mahmoud Timour. Mahmoud bahkan menulis tentang perjalanan Germanus mencari Islam dalam bukunya Behind the Veil (Dibalik Hijab) yang berisi kumpulan kisah-kisah pendek. Dia menyebut Germanus seorang teman yang baik, yang memiliki kecakapan bahasa Arab demikian mengagumkan. Menurut Mahmoud, Germanus memainkan peranan yang penting dalam menjaga dan melestarikan bahasa Arab klasik.

Begitulah, akhirnya Germanus benar-benar mencapai tingkat kemahiran yang tinggi dalam tata bahasa Arab (baca: Al-Quran). Dia selanjutnya kembali ke kampung halaman dan menjadi profesor di Universitas Budapes bidang sejarah dan kebudayaan selama hampir 40 tahun lamanya. Dia banyak mempublikasikan hasil-hasil pemikirannya, terutama tentang kebangkitan bahasa Arab klasik di dunia Arab. Obsesinya adalah membangkitkan kembali kejayaan bahasa Arab klasik yang mati suri selama sekian lama. Impiannya, satu saat nanti semua negara-negara Arab bisa bercakap dengan format bahasa Arab yang seragam hingga akan mengikat kesatuan di antara mereka serta tumbuh kecintaan akan warisan budaya dan sejarah Arab yang begitu tinggi.

Menentang sikap orientalis

Sepanjang perjalanan karir akademisnya, Germanus berperang melawan orientalis di Eropa. Dalam berbagai penjelasan, dia selalu menyampaikan argumentasinya berdasarkan data dan fakta serta rasional. Begitupun dia selalu mendapat tentangan, bahkan menjurus permusuhan. Akibatnya sering berselisih pendapat dengan para orientalis lain. Bahkan dia dipecat oleh pihak universitas dengan alasan kelakuan yang tidak pantas. Sebaliknya dengan para mahasiswa bimbingannya, meskipun Germanus dicap berseberangan pemikiran dengan para orientalis, mereka tetap mendukung ide-ide yang dibawanya. Mereka menghargai pekerjaannya dan melihat buah karyanya punya pengaruh yang besar secara akademis, di Barat dan dunia Islam. Karena dukungan para mahasiswa itu pula dia masih masih bisa tetap menjadi staf pengajar di universitas.

Naik Haji

Di Hungaria, Germanus berusaha keras memberikan pencerahan kepada Muslim di negerinya, yang kala itu berjumlah antara 1000 hingga 2000 jiwa. Dia mendirikan sebuah organisasi guna menjembatani hubungan antara Islam dengan pemerintah. Misinya kala itu adalah membawa Islam agar diterima sebagai salah satu agama resmi di Hungaria.

Tahun 1935 Germanus menunaikan rukum Islam kelima dan menjadi satu dari sedikit Muslim Eropa yang berangkat ke Mekkah pada masa itu. Tahun 1939 dia menunaikan ibadah haji untuk kali kedua. Bahkan kisah perjalanan rohaninya ke Mekkah dirangkumnya dalam sebuah buku berbahasa Hungaria yang cukup terkenal berjudul Allahu Akbar! Buku tersebut telah diterjemahkan ke dalam beberapa bahasa.

Germanus menikah dengan seorang perempuan Eropa yang dulunya beragama Kristen. Setelah beberapa lama, sang istri akhirnya memeluk Islam dengan disaksikan oleh Syekh Ahmed Abdul Ghafur Attar, seorang penulis dan akademisi Islam terkenal.

Publikasi Islam di Eropa

Germanus aktif berdakwah melalui tulisan. Dia menulis tentang Islam di pelbagai media di Eropa. Dalam sebuah artikelnya dia pernah menulis bahwa Islam satu saat nanti akan memperlihatkan keajaibannya pada saat dunia mulai diliputi oleh kegelapan.

Germanus bisa disebut sebagai jenius bahasa. Buktinya dia menulis banyak buku, diantaranya The Greek, Arabic Literature in Hungarian, Lights of the East, Uncovering the Arabian Peninsula, Between Intellectuals, The History of Arabic Literature, The History of the Arabs, Modern Movements in Islam, Studies in the Grammatical Structure of the Arabic Language, Journeys of Arabs, Pre-Islamic Poetry, Great Arabic Literature, Guidance From the Light of the Crescent (a personal memoir), An Adventure in the Desert, Arab Nationalism, Allahu Akbar, Mahmoud Timour and Modern Arabic Literature, The Great Arab Poets, dan The Rise of Arab Culture.

Germanus yang meninggal pada 7 Nopember 1979 mengabdikan dirinya untuk Islam sepanjang lebih kurang 50 tahun. Begitulah, kisah sang legenda yang tak lekang oleh zaman. Dia dikenang hingga kini sebagai salah satu legenda Muslim di Hungaria.

** Yasser Hejazi adalah Peneliti dan wartawan  Mesir

Artikel ini diterjemahkan dari bahasa Arab oleh Rose Aslan.

http://www.inpasonline.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=94:orientalis-hungariah-masuk-islam&catid=51:internasional&Itemid=112

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Julius Germanus: Hungarian Orientalist Islam Sign
September 3, 2010 – erzal | Edit
Julius Germanus: Hungarian Orientalist Islam Sign

Saturday, May 2, 2009 8:51 publishers

InpasOnline, 9/05/09

Dr. Abdul Karim Germanus (1884-1979) was a prominent Hungarian Orientalist and also an academician who has worldwide. Spiritual journey Abdul Karim Germanus (formerly known as Julius Germanus) to find Islam seized nearly half his life journey. He spent all his life to defend Islam and Arabic. After passing the tough times during adolescence and loose from the shackles of tradition, he was interested to learn about Islam.

InpasOnline, 9/05/09

Dr. Abdul Karim Germanus (1884-1979) was a prominent Hungarian Orientalist and also an academician who has worldwide. Spiritual journey Abdul Karim Germanus (formerly known as Julius Germanus) to find Islam seized nearly half his life journey. He spent all his life to defend Islam and Arabic. After passing the tough times during adolescence and loose from the shackles of tradition, he was interested to learn about Islam.

Germanus Islamic describes the story as “the awakening of a new life.” Otherwise, the early introduction to Islam was in Turkey at the time was a student there.

Then, he went to India to teach there, during World War I. And in the land of Bollywood’s two-sentence he uttered syahadah. After serving in India Germanus returned to Hungary and was appointed professor there. He would often argue with professors and Hungarian Orientalist, especially about the truth of Islam. The following story of one Muslim legend in Hungary was taken from several sources.

Beginning the journey

Germanus was born in Budapest, the capital of Hungary in 1884 and raised in a devout Christian nuance. Immediately after graduating from the University of Budapest, he decided to specialize in Turkish. Subsequently in 1903 he went to Istanbul. He received the University of Istanbul and took language courses in Turkey. For years he lived there eventually be fluent both in terms of conversation, reading and writing.

While in Istanbul, Germanus also learn the following translation of the Quran in Turkish. That initial introduction to Islam. With its high ability to read a translation of the Turkish-speaking al-Quran, Islam makes it easy to understand directly from the original source. Not only that, he also compared the translation in several other languages. A common effort undertaken by Christian missionaries to study the weaknesses of Islam.

But Germanus precisely interested in Islam. Motivated by the truth of Islam, he decided to do research that is tracing what has been written by Christians about Islam and compare it with the original source ie the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet. He made various efforts. For example, by reading the translation of the books of Hadith in order to study the sayings of Prophet Muhammad.

Quarrel with the professor

Germanus returned to Hungary and met with several former professor at the University of Budapest. They have a great reputation as an orientalist. But often convey distorted thoughts about Islam. Germanus arguing with the professors. He tells the real character of the figure of the Prophet Muhammad. Description is based on the various traditions that he learned. Once satisfied “quarrel” with his professors, Germanus decided to learn Arabic more depth again. Germanus’s got great talent in the field of language. The proof, in the short time he was fluent in Arabic. Not satisfied, he also learned the Persian language.

In 1912, Germanus was appointed professor of Arabic, Persian and Turkish at the Hungarian Royal Academy in Budapest. He is also nurturing the course of Islamic history. Subsequently he led the Department of Oriental studies at the Budapest University of Economics.

Bersyahadah in India

In 1928, after working some time at the University of Budapest, a leading poet and a Nobel laureate from Bangladesh (then still called Indian-ed) Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) Germanus invited to teach at the same time directing the program of Islamic Studies at Visva-Bharati University. Germanus lived in India for several years and there too he found the light of Islam. Syahadahnya procession took place in the Great Mosque of Delhi and he changed the name to Abdul Karim. University where she worked mendiskriminasikannya not because of Islam. Even he gets clearance, such as for Friday prayer to the mosque.

Germanus a strong desire to deepen their understanding of Islam and explore the unique properties of Muslims have been bringing in one famous Muslim poet Muhammad Iqbal from Pakistan ie. Curiosity Germanus who was so high that he was often involved in talks to for hours. Not only that, they also often discuss the activities of the orientalists and Christian missionaries.

Germanus and Iqbal had a different view on Christian missionary activity. According to Germanus, the propaganda spread by Christian missionaries in Europe as a thorny issue that worried. While Iqbal actually see the real problems exist in people of Islam itself. Iqbal said the weak Muslim unity that makes Islam easy diombang-udder.

Learning classical Arabic

Lovely Germanus in Arabic have been brought to Cairo, where he later studied classical Arabic. At one point, the first time you set foot in the port of Alexandria, he admitted to was very surprised with the response given by local residents. They laughed at his Arabic on Germanus. It’s nothing, because he spoke with classical Arabic, or ancient!

They, the citizens of Alexandria, chatted with local dialects to Germanus was unable to digest what they were saying. Kontan she felt angry and shouted loudly, “I am here to learn the language of Al-Quran from you! Why do not you just laugh and mock me? ”

During his stay in Egypt, Germanus has established close relations with the author’s famous hippopotamus country namely Mahmoud Timour. Mahmoud even writing about travel search Germanus of Islam in his book Behind the Veil (Behind the Hijab) which contains a collection of short stories. He called Germanus a good friend, who have proficiency in Arabic so amazing. According to Mahmoud, Germanus play an important role in maintaining and preserving the classical Arabic.

So, finally Germanus to actually achieve a high level of proficiency in Arabic grammar (read: Al-Quran). He then returned to my hometown and became a professor at the University of Budapest in history and culture for nearly 40 years. She has published the results of his thinking, especially about the resurrection of classical Arabic in the Arab world. His obsession is to bring back the glory of classical Arabic dormant for so long. His dream, one day all the Arab countries could speak Arabic with a uniform format to be binding on the unity between them and the growing love of the Arab cultural heritage and history that is so high.

Opposed the Orientalist attitude

Throughout his academic career, Germanus war against Orientalist in Europe. In many explanations, he always delivered his argument based on data and facts and rational. So is he always had opposition, and even lead to hostility. As a result often disagree with other Orientalists. Even he was fired by the university by reason of misconduct. In contrast with the students guidance, although the opposite Germanus stamped with the orientalist thinking, they still support the ideas he brought. They appreciate his work and see the fruits of his work had great influence in academia, in the West and the Islamic world. Because the support of the students too he still can still remain a faculty member at the university.

Palmer

In Hungary, Germanus trying hard to give enlightenment to the Muslim in his country, which at that time numbered between 1000 to 2000 inhabitants. He founded an organization to bridge the relationship between Islam and the government. Its mission at that time was to bring Islam to be accepted as one of the official religion in Hungary.

Germanus 1935 Islamic rukum perform the fifth and became one of the few European Muslims who went to Mecca at that time. In 1939 he perform the pilgrimage for the second time. Even the story of his spiritual journey to Mecca dirangkumnya in a Hungarian-language book is very well known titled Allahu Akbar! The book has been translated into several languages.

Germanus was married to a European woman who had once been a Christian. After a while, his wife eventually converted to Islam, attended by Sheikh Ahmed Abdul Ghafur Attar, a writer and renowned Islamic scholar.

Publication of Islam in Europe

Germanus actively preaching through writing. He writes about Islam in various European media. In an article he once wrote that one day Islam will show its magic when the world began overwhelmed by darkness.

Germanus could be called a genius of language. The proof he wrote many books, including The Greek, Arabic Literature in Hungarian, Lights of the East, uncovering the Arabian Peninsula, Between intellectuals, The History of Arabic Literature, The History of the Arabs, Modern Movements in Islam, Studies in the grammatical Structure of the Arabic Language, Journeys of Arabs, the Pre-Islamic Poetry, Great Arabic Literature, Guidance From the Light of the Crescent (a personal memoir), An Adventure in the Desert, Arab Nationalism, Allahu Akbar, Mahmoud Timour and Modern Arabic Literature, The Great Arab Poets, and The Rise of Arab Culture.

Germanus, who died on 7 November 1979 to devote himself to Islam along more or less 50 years. Anyway, the story of the timeless legend that era. He is remembered to this day as one Muslim legend in Hungary.

** Yasser Hejazi is Egyptian researcher and journalist

This article was translated from Arabic by Rose Aslan.

http://www.inpasonline.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=94:orientalis-hungariah-masuk-islam&catid=51:internasional&Itemid=112

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