Awal perubahan sosial di bawah Islam

Awal perubahan sosial di bawah Islam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Dari Wikipedia Bahasa Melayu, ensiklopedia bebas

Muhammad callig.gif
Prophet of Islam Nabi Islam
Muhammad Muhammad


Life Kehidupan
Companions · Family tree · In Mecca · In Medina · Conquest of Mecca · The Farewell Sermon · Succession Sahabat · Keluarga pohon · Di Mekah · Di Madinah · Pembebasan Mekkah · Perpisahan Khotbah · Suksesi


Career Karier
Diplomatic career · Family · Wives · Military career Diplomatik karir · Keluarga · Istri · karir militer


Succession Penggantian
Farewell Pilgrimage · Pen and paper · Saqifah · General bay’ah Haji Wada · Pen dan kertas · Saqifah · Umum bay’ah


Interactions with Interaksi dengan
Slaves · Jews · Christians Budak · Yahudi · Kristen


Perspectives Perspektif
Muslim ( Poetic and Mawlid ) · Medieval Christian · Historicity · Criticism · Depictions Muslim ( Puitis dan Maulid ) · Abad Pertengahan Kristen · Historisitas · Kritik · Penggambaran

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Many social changes took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammad ‘s mission and the rule of his four immediate successors who established the Rashidun Caliphate . Banyak perubahan sosial yang berlangsung di bawah Islam antara 610 dan 661, termasuk periode Muhammad misi dan aturan-nya empat penerus langsung yang mendirikan kekhalifahan Khulafaur Rasyidin .

According to William Montgomery Watt , for Muhammad, religion was not a private and individual matter but rather “the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself. He was responding [not only]… to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject.” [ 1 ] Menurut William Montgomery Watt , Muhammad, agama bukan urusan pribadi dan individu melainkan “respon total kepribadiannya total pada situasi di mana dia menemukan dirinya. Ia menanggapi [tidak hanya] … untuk agama dan aspek intelektual dari situasi, tetapi juga, sosial, dan politik tekanan ekonomi yang kontemporer Mekah adalah subjek “. [1]

Bernard Lewis says that there are two important political traditions in Islam – one that views Muhammad as a statesman in Medina , and another that views him as a rebel in Mecca. Bernard Lewis mengatakan bahwa ada dua tradisi politik yang penting dalam Islam – yang dilihat Muhammad sebagai negarawan di Madinah , dan lain yang dilihat sebagai seorang pemberontak di Mekah. He sees Islam itself as a type of revolution that greatly changed the societies into which the new religion was brought. [ 2 ] Dia melihat Islam itu sendiri sebagai suatu jenis revolusi yang sangat berubah menjadi masyarakat agama baru yang dibawa. [2]

Historians generally agree that Islamic social reforms in areas such as social security , family structure, slavery and the rights of women and ethnic minorities improved on what was present in existing Arab society. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] For example, according to Lewis, Islam “from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy , and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents.” [ 2 ] Para sejarawan umumnya sepakat bahwa reformasi sosial Islam di berbagai bidang seperti jaminan sosial , keluarga struktur, perbudakan dan hak-hak dari perempuan dan etnis minoritas ditingkatkan pada apa yang ada hadir di Arab masyarakat. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6 ] [7] Sebagai contoh, menurut Lewis, Islam “dari yang pertama mencela aristokrat hak istimewa, ditolak hirarki , dan mengadopsi formula dari karir terbuka untuk bakat “. [2]

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[ edit ] Advent of Islam [ sunting ] Adven Islam

Bernard Lewis believes that the advent of Islam was a revolution which only partially succeeded due to tensions between the new religion and very old societies that the Muslims conquered. Bernard Lewis berpendapat bahwa kedatangan Islam adalah sebuah revolusi yang hanya sebagian berhasil karena ketegangan antara agama baru dan lama masyarakat sangat bahwa Muslim menaklukkan. He thinks that one such area of tension was a consequence of what he sees as the egalitarian nature of Islamic doctrine. Dia berpikir bahwa satu wilayah seperti ketegangan adalah akibat dari apa yang ia lihat sebagai sifat egaliter dari ajaran Islam. Islam from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents. Islam dari yang pertama mencela keistimewaan aristokratis, ditolak hirarki, dan mengadopsi formula karir terbuka untuk bakat. Lewis however notes that the equality in Islam was restricted to free adult male Muslims, but even that “represented a very considerable advance on the practice of both the Greco-Roman and the ancient Iranian world.” [ 2 ] Namun Lewis mencatat bahwa kesetaraan dalam Islam dibatasi untuk laki-laki Muslim dewasa bebas, tapi bahkan itu “mewakili kemajuan yang sangat besar pada praktek baik Yunani-Romawi dan Iran kuno dunia “. [2]

Bernard Lewis writes about the significance of Muhammad’s achievements: [ 8 ] Bernard Lewis menulis tentang pentingnya’s prestasi Muhammad: [8]

“ “ He had achieved a great deal. Dia telah mencapai banyak. To the pagan peoples of western Arabia he had brought a new religion which, with its monotheism and its ethical doctrines, stood on an incomparably higher level than the paganism it replaced. Untuk orang kafir barat Saudi ia membawa agama baru yang, dengan monoteisme dan doktrin etis, berdiri pada tingkat yang tak terbandingkan lebih tinggi daripada paganisme diganti. He had provided that religion with a revelation which was to become in the centuries to follow the guide to thought and count of countless millions of Believers. Dia telah menyediakan bahwa agama dengan wahyu yang menjadi dalam berabad-abad untuk mengikuti panduan untuk pikiran dan hitungan yang tak terhitung jumlahnya jutaan kaum beriman. But he had done more than that; he had established a community and a well organized and armed state, the power and prestige of which made it a dominant factor in Arabia Tapi dia telah melakukan lebih dari itu, ia telah membentuk masyarakat dan negara terorganisir dan bersenjata, kekuatan dan prestise yang membuatnya menjadi faktor dominan di Arab ” “

[ edit ] Constitution of Medina [ sunting ] Konstitusi Madinah

Main article: Constitution of Medina Artikel utama: Konstitusi Madinah

The Constitution of Medina , also known as the Charter of Medina , was drafted by Muhammad in 622. The Konstitusi Madinah , juga dikenal sebagai Piagam Madinah, dirancang oleh Muhammad di 622. It constituted a formal agreement between Muhammad and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib (later known as Medina), including Muslims, Jews , and pagans . [ 9 ] [ 10 ] The document was drawn up with the explicit concern of bringing to an end the bitter inter tribal fighting between the clans of the Aws ( Banu Aus ) and Banu Khazraj within Medina. Ini merupakan kesepakatan formal antara Muhammad dan semua suku yang signifikan dan keluarga Yatsrib (kemudian dikenal sebagai Madinah), termasuk Muslim, Yahudi , dan orang-orang kafir . [9] [10] Dokumen tersebut disusun dengan memperhatikan eksplisit membawa ke sebuah akhir pahit antar suku pertempuran antara klan dari Aws ( Bani Aus ) dan Banu Khazraj di Madinah. To this effect it instituted a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, and pagan communities of Medina bringing them within the fold of one community-the Ummah . [ 11 ] Untuk efek ini melembagakan sejumlah hak dan tanggung jawab bagi Muslim, Yahudi, dan komunitas pagan Madinah membawa mereka dalam satu komunitas lipatan-para umat . [11]

The precise dating of the Constitution of Medina remains debated but generally scholars agree it was written shortly after the hijra (622). [ 12 ] It effectively established the first Islamic state. Penanggalan yang tepat dari Konstitusi Madinah masih diperdebatkan tetapi umumnya ulama setuju itu ditulis tidak lama setelah hijrah (622). [12] secara efektif mendirikan negara Islam pertama. The Constitution established: the security of the community, religious freedoms, the role of Medina as a haram or sacred place (barring all violence and weapons), the security of women, stable tribal relations within Medina, a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict, parameters for exogenous political alliances, a system for granting protection of individuals, a judicial system for resolving disputes, and also regulated the paying of blood-wite (the payment between families or tribes for the slaying of an individual in lieu of lex talionis ). Konstitusi didirikan: keamanan masyarakat, kebebasan agama, peran Madinah sebagai haram atau tempat suci (pembatasan semua kekerasan dan senjata), keamanan perempuan, hubungan suku stabil dalam Madinah, sistem pajak untuk mendukung masyarakat dalam waktu konflik, parameter untuk aliansi politik eksogen, sistem pemberian perlindungan terhadap individu, sebuah sistem peradilan untuk menyelesaikan sengketa, dan juga mengatur membayar dari darah-wite (pembayaran antara keluarga atau suku untuk membunuh individu di ganti lex talionis ).

[ edit ] Social reforms [ sunting ] reformasi Sosial

Muhammad preached against what he saw as the social evils of his day, Encyclopedia of World History states. [ 13 ] Muhammad berkhotbah menentang apa yang dilihatnya sebagai kejahatan sosial pada zamannya, Ensiklopedia Sejarah Dunia negara. [13]

[ edit ] Practices [ sunting ] Praktek

John Esposito sees Muhammad as a reformer who condemned practices of the pagan Arabs such as female infanticide , exploitation of the poor, usury , murder , false contracts , fornication , adultery , and theft . [ 14 ] He states that Muhammad’s “insistence that each person was personally accountable not to tribal customary law but to an overriding divine law shook the very foundations of Arabian society… Muhammad proclaimed a sweeping program of religious and social reform that affected religious belief and practices, business contracts and practices, male-female and family relations”. [ 15 ] Esposito holds that the Qur’an ‘s reforms consist of “regulations or moral guidance that limit or redefine rather than prohibit or replace existing practices.” John Esposito melihat Muhammad sebagai pembaharu yang mengutuk praktek-praktek Arab pagan seperti pembunuhan bayi perempuan , eksploitasi kaum miskin, riba , pembunuhan , palsu kontrak , percabulan , perzinahan , dan pencurian . [14] Ia menyatakan bahwa Muhammad “penegasan bahwa setiap orang secara pribadi bertanggung jawab untuk tidak hukum adat suku tapi ke utama hukum ilahi mengguncang dasar-dasar masyarakat Arab … Muhammad menyatakan program pembersihan dan reformasi sosial keagamaan yang mempengaruhi keyakinan agama dan praktik, bisnis kontrak dan praktek, laki-laki dan perempuan hubungan keluarga “. [15] Esposito berpendapat bahwa Al Qur’an reformasi s ‘terdiri dari “peraturan atau bimbingan moral atau mendefinisikan kembali batas itu bukan melarang atau mengganti praktik yang ada.” He cites slavery and women’s status as two examples. Dia mengutip perbudakan dan status perempuan sebagai dua contoh.

According to some scholars, Muhammad’s condemnation of infanticide was the key aspect of his attempts to raise the status of women. [ 7 ] Regarding the prevalence of this practice, we know it was “common enough among the pre-Islamic Arabs to be assigned a specific term, waʾd[ 16 ] A much cited verse the Qur’an that addresses this practice is: “When the sun shall be darkened, when the stars shall be thrown down, when the mountains shall be set moving, when the pregnant camels shall be neglected, when the savage beasts shall be mustered, when the seas shall be set boiling, when the souls shall be coupled, when the buried infant shall be asked for what sin she was slain , when the scrolls shall be unrolled…” [ Qur’an 81:1 ] [ 7 ] Menurut beberapa ulama, yang mengutuk Muhammad infantisida adalah aspek kunci dari upaya untuk meningkatkan status perempuan. [7] Mengenai prevalensi dari praktik ini, kami tahu itu “cukup umum di kalangan Islam Arab pra untuk diberi istilah tertentu, wa ʾ d[16] Sebuah banyak dikutip ayat Al Qur’an bahwa alamat praktek ini adalah: “Ketika matahari akan menjadi gelap, apabila bintang-bintang akan dilemparkan ke bawah, ketika gunung-gunung akan diatur bergerak, saat hamil unta harus diabaikan, apabila binatang-binatang buas harus mengerahkan, apabila lautan akan diatur mendidih, ketika jiwa harus digabungkan, ketika bayi dikubur akan ditanya untuk apa dosa apakah dia dibunuh, ketika akan membuka gulungan gulungan … “[ Qur’an 81:1 ] [7]

[ edit ] Social security [ sunting ] Jaminan sosial

William Montgomery Watt states that Muhammad was both a social and moral reformer. William Montgomery Watt menyatakan bahwa Muhammad adalah baik reformis sosial dan moral. He asserts that Muhammad created a “new system of social security and a new family structure, both of which were a vast improvement on what went before. By taking what was best in the morality of the nomad and adapting it for settled communities, he established a religious and social framework for the life of many races of men.” [ 17 ] Dia menegaskan bahwa Muhammad menciptakan sistem “jaminan sosial baru dan struktur keluarga baru, yang keduanya merupakan kemajuan besar pada apa yang terjadi sebelumnya. Dengan mengambil apa yang terbaik dalam moralitas nomad dan mengadaptasi untuk masyarakat menetap, ia mendirikan dan kerangka kerja sosial keagamaan bagi kehidupan dari berbagai ras manusia. ” [17]

In pre-Islamic Arabia, upon capture, those captives not executed, were made to beg for their subsistence. Dalam Arab pra-Islam, setelah menangkap, mereka tawanan tidak dieksekusi, dibuat untuk mengemis subsistensi mereka. During his life, Muhammad changed this custom and made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion. Selama hidupnya, Muhammad mengubah kebiasaan ini dan membuatnya menjadi tanggung jawab pemerintah Islam untuk menyediakan makanan dan pakaian, atas dasar memadai, untuk tawanan, tanpa memandang agama mereka. If the prisoners were in the custody of a person, then the responsibility was on the individual. [ 18 ] Jika para tahanan berada di bawah pengawasan seseorang, kemudian tanggung jawab itu pada individu. [18]

[ edit ] Slavery [ sunting ] Perbudakan

Main article: Islam and slavery Artikel utama: Islam dan perbudakan

A slave market in Islamic Yemen . Sebuah pasar budak di Islam Yaman .

The Qur’an makes numerous references to slavery ( [ Qur’an 2:178 ] , [ Qur’an 16:75 ] , [ Qur’an 30:28 ] ), regulating but thereby also implicitly accepting this already existing institution. Alquran membuat banyak referensi untuk perbudakan ([ Qur’an 2:178 ], [ Alquran 16:75 ], [ Qur’an 30:28 ]), namun demikian juga mengatur secara implisit menerima lembaga ini sudah ada. Lewis states that Islam brought two major changes to ancient slavery which were to have far-reaching consequences. Lewis menyatakan bahwa Islam membawa dua perubahan besar pada perbudakan kuno yang memiliki konsekuensi jauh. “One of these was the presumption of freedom; the other, the ban on the enslavement of free persons except in strictly defined circumstances,” Lewis continues. “Salah satunya adalah dugaan kebebasan; yang lain, larangan perbudakan orang bebas kecuali dalam keadaan benar-benar pasti,” lanjut Lewis. The position of the Arabian slave was “enormously improved”: the Arabian slave “was now no longer merely a chattel but was also a human being with a certain religious and hence a social status and with certain quasi-legal rights.” [ 19 ] Posisi budak Arab adalah “sangat baik”: budak Arab “sekarang tidak lagi hanya harta tapi juga manusia dengan dan agama tertentu maka status sosial dan dengan hak kuasi-hukum tertentu. ” [19]

Lewis states that in Muslim lands slaves had a certain legal status and had obligations as well as rights to the slave owner, an improvement over slavery in the ancient world . [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Due to these reforms the practice of slavery in the Islamic empire represented a “vast improvement on that inherited from antiquity, from Rome , and from Byzantium .” [ 19 ] Lewis menyatakan bahwa dalam Islam tanah tertentu budak memiliki status hukum dan memiliki kewajiban serta hak pemilik budak, perbaikan atas perbudakan di dunia kuno . [19] [20] Karena reformasi ini praktek perbudakan dalam Islam mewakili kerajaan besar perbaikan “pada yang diwarisi dari jaman dahulu, dari Roma , dan dari Bizantium “. [19]

Although there are many common features between the institution of slavery in the Qur’an and that of neighboring cultures, however the Qur’anic institution had some unique new features. [ 21 ] According to Jonathan Brockopp, professor of History and Religious Studies , the idea of using alms for the manumission of slaves appears to be unique to the Qur’an (assuming the traditional interpretation of verses [ Qur’an 2:177 ] and [ Qur’an 9:60 ] ). Meskipun ada banyak fitur-fitur umum antara lembaga perbudakan dalam Qur’an dan budaya tetangga, namun lembaga Al-Qur’an memiliki beberapa fitur baru yang unik. [21] Menurut Jonathan Brockopp, profesor Sejarah dan Studi Agama , yang ide untuk menggunakan zakat untuk pembebasan budak tampaknya menjadi unik dengan Al Qur’an (dengan asumsi bahwa penafsiran tradisional dari ayat-ayat [ Qur’an 2:177 ] dan [ Al-Qur’an 9:60 ]). Similarly, the practice of freeing slaves in atonement for certain sins appears to be introduced by the Qur’an. [ 21 ] Brockopp adds that: “Other cultures limit a master’s right to harm a slave but few exhort masters to treat their slaves kindly, and the placement of slaves in the same category as other weak members of society who deserve protection is unknown outside the Qur’an. The unique contribution of the Qur’an, then, is to be found in its emphasis on the place of slaves in society and society’s responsibility toward the slave, perhaps the most progressive legislation on slavery in its time.” [ 21 ] Demikian pula, praktik membebaskan budak di pendamaian bagi dosa-dosa tertentu tampaknya diperkenalkan oleh Al-Qur’an. [21] Brockopp menambahkan bahwa: “budaya lain membatasi hak master untuk menyakiti hamba, melainkan beberapa guru menasihati untuk memperlakukan budak mereka dengan baik, dan penempatan budak dalam kategori yang sama sebagai anggota masyarakat lemah lainnya yang berhak menerima perlindungan ini tidak dikenal di luar Al Qur’an Kontribusi yang unik dari Al Qur’an, kemudian,. yang akan ditemukan dalam penekanan pada tempat budak di masyarakat dan tanggung jawab masyarakat terhadap budak, mungkin undang-undang yang paling progresif pada perbudakan pada waktunya. ” [21]

Muhammad highly recommended the freeing of slaves as a charitable act. [ 22 ] The freeing of slaves was recommended both for the expiation of sins [ 23 ] and as an act of simple benevolence. [ 24 ] It exhorted masters to either free their slaves or allow slaves to earn or purchase their own freedom through Mukataba (manumission contracts). [ 25 ] Muhammad sangat dianjurkan membebaskan budak sebagai tindakan amal. [22] yang membebaskan budak direkomendasikan baik untuk penebusan dosa [23] dan sebagai tindakan kebajikan yang sederhana. [24] Ini mendesak majikan baik mereka bebas atau budak memungkinkan budak untuk mendapatkan atau membeli kebebasan mereka sendiri melalui Mukataba (pembebasan kontrak). [25]

[ edit ] Women’s rights [ sunting hak Perempuan]

Main article: Women in Islam Artikel utama: Wanita dalam Islam

To evaluate the effect of Islam on the status of women, many writers have discussed the status of women in pre-Islamic Arabia, and their findings have been mixed. [ 26 ] Some writers have argued that women before Islam were more liberated drawing most often on the first marriage of Muhammad and that of Muhammad’s parents, but also on other points such as worship of female idols at Mecca. [ 26 ] Other writers, on the contrary, have argued that women’s status in pre-Islamic Arabia was poor, citing practices of female infanticide, unlimited polygyny , patrilineal marriage and others. [ 26 ] Untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh Islam pada status perempuan, banyak penulis telah membahas status perempuan di Arab pra-Islam, dan temuan mereka telah dicampur. [26] Beberapa penulis berpendapat bahwa perempuan sebelum Islam itu dibebaskan lebih gambar yang paling sering pada perkawinan pertama Muhammad dan yang dari orangtua Muhammad, tetapi juga pada poin lain seperti menyembah berhala perempuan di Mekah. [26] penulis lain, sebaliknya, berpendapat bahwa status perempuan di-Islam Arab pra miskin, mengutip praktek-praktek pembunuhan bayi perempuan, tidak terbatas poligami , patrilineal pernikahan dan lain-lain. [26]

Valentine Moghadam analyzes the situation of women from a Marxist theoretical framework and argues that the position of women are mostly influenced by the extent of urbanization, industrialization, poletarization and political ploys of the state managers rather than culture or intrinsic properties of Islam; Islam, Moghadam argues, is neither more nor less patriarchal than other world religions especially Hinduism , Christianity and Judaism . [ 27 ] [ 28 ] Valentine Moghadam analisis situasi wanita dari Marxis kerangka teori dan berpendapat bahwa posisi perempuan sebagian besar dipengaruhi oleh tingkat urbanisasi, industrialisasi, poletarization dan ploys politik dari manajer negara bukan budaya atau sifat intrinsik Islam, Islam, Moghadam berpendapat, tidak lebih dan tidak kurang patriarkal dari agama-agama dunia lainnya terutama Hindu , Kristen dan Yudaisme . [27] [28]

Majid Khadduri writes that under the Arabian pre-Islamic law of status, women had virtually no rights. Sharia (Islamic law), however, provided women with a number of rights. [ 29 ] John Esposito states that the reforms affected marriage, divorce, and inheritance. [ 14 ] Women were not accorded with such legal status in other cultures, including the West, until centuries later. [ 30 ] The Oxford Dictionary of Islam states that the general improvement of the status of Arab women included prohibition of female infanticide, and recognizing women’s full personhood. [ 31 ] Gerhard Endress states: “The social system … build up a new system of marriage, family and inheritance; this system treated women as an individual too and guaranteed social security to her as well as to her children. Legally controlled polygamy was an important advance on the various loosely defined arrangements which had previously been both possible and current; it was only by this provision (backed up by severe punishment for adultery), that the family, the core of any sedentary society could be placed on a firm footing.” [ 32 ] Khadduri Majid menulis bahwa di bawah hukum Arab pra-Islam status, perempuan hampir tidak memiliki hak. Syariah (hukum Islam), namun, asalkan wanita dengan sejumlah hak. [29] Esposito menyatakan Yohanes bahwa reformasi yang terkena dampak perkawinan, perceraian, dan warisan. [14] Wanita tidak diberikan dengan status hukum seperti dalam budaya lain, termasuk Barat, sampai abad kemudian. [30] The Oxford Kamus Islam menyatakan bahwa perbaikan umum status perempuan Arab termasuk larangan pembunuhan bayi perempuan , dan penuh kepribadian wanita mengakui. [31] Gerhard Endress menyatakan: ” sistem sosial … membangun suatu sistem baru untuk pernikahan, keluarga dan warisan; sistem ini memperlakukan perempuan sebagai individu juga dan dijamin jaminan sosial padanya serta untuk anak-anaknya. Legally dikontrol poligami adalah suatu kemajuan penting dalam pengaturan berbagai longgar didefinisikan yang sebelumnya mungkin dan saat ini, melainkan hanya dengan ketentuan ini (yang didukung oleh hukuman berat untuk perzinahan), bahwa keluarga, inti dari setiap masyarakat menetap dapat ditempatkan pada pijakan perusahaan “. [32]

[ edit ] Marriage [ sunting ] Perkawinan

Under the Arabian pre-Islamic law, no limitations were set on men’s rights to marry or to obtain a divorce. [ 29 ] Islamic law, however, restricted polygamy ( [ Qur’an 4:3 ] ) [ 14 ] The institution of marriage, characterized by unquestioned male superiority in the pre-Islamic law of status, was redefined and changed into one in which the woman was somewhat of an interested partner. Di bawah hukum Arab pra-Islam, tidak ada batasan yang ditetapkan pada hak orang untuk menikah atau untuk mendapatkan perceraian. [29] Hukum Islam, Namun, terbatas poligami ([ Qur’an 04:03 ]) [14] Lembaga perkawinan , dicirikan oleh superioritas laki-laki tidak diragukan lagi dalam undang-undang pra-Islam status, didefinisikan kembali dan berubah menjadi satu di mana perempuan itu sedikit dari mitra tertarik. ‘For example, the dowry , previously regarded as a bride-price paid to the father, became a nuptial gift retained by the wife as part of her personal property’ [ 14 ] [ 29 ] Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a “status” but rather as a “contract”. “Sebagai contoh, maskawin , sebelumnya dianggap sebagai harga pengantin yang dibayarkan kepada ayah, menjadi hadiah upacara perkawinan dipertahankan oleh istri sebagai bagian dari properti pribadi ‘ [14] [29] Menurut hukum Islam, perkawinan tidak lagi dipandang sebagai status “” tapi lebih sebagai kontrak “”. The essential elements of the marriage contract were now an offer by the man, an acceptance by the woman, and the performance of such conditions as the payment of dowry. Yang penting unsur kontrak pernikahan sekarang tawaran oleh manusia, sebuah penerimaan oleh perempuan itu, dan kinerja kondisi seperti pembayaran mas kawin. The woman’s consent was imperative. persetujuan wanita itu adalah keharusan. Furthermore, the offer and acceptance had to be made in the presence of at least two witnesses. [ 14 ] [ 29 ] [ 31 ] A man was not allowed to leave his wife and marry some one else just because the other women pleased him more.(quran). Selain itu, penawaran dan penerimaan harus dilakukan di hadapan sekurang-kurangnya dua orang saksi. [14] [29] [31] Seorang laki-laki tidak diizinkan untuk meninggalkan istrinya dan menikah dengan orang lain hanya karena perempuan lain dia lebih senang (quran.).

[ edit ] Inheritance and wealth [ sunting ] Warisan dan kekayaan

‘Women were given inheritance rights in a patriarchal society that had previously restricted inheritance to male relatives.’ [ 14 ] Annemarie Schimmel states that “Compared to the pre-Islamic position of women, Islamic legislation meant an enormous progress; the woman has the right, at least according to the letter of the law, to administer the wealth she has brought into the family or has earned by her own work” [ 33 ] According to The Oxford Dictionary of Islam , women were also granted the right to live in the matrimonial home and receive financial maintenance during marriage and a waiting period following the death and divorce. [ 31 ] ‘Perempuan diberi hak waris dalam masyarakat patriarki yang sebelumnya dibatasi warisan kepada sanak saudara laki-laki’. [14] Annemarie Schimmel menyatakan bahwa “Dibandingkan dengan posisi pra-Islam perempuan, undang-undang Islam berarti suatu kemajuan yang sangat besar; wanita memiliki hak , setidaknya menurut huruf hukum, untuk mengelola kekayaan dia telah dibawa masuk ke dalam keluarga atau telah menerima dengan kerja sendiri ” [33] Menurut Kamus Oxford Islam, perempuan juga diberikan hak untuk hidup di perkawinan rumah dan menerima perawatan keuangan selama perkawinan dan masa tunggu setelah kematian dan perceraian. [31]

[ edit ] The status of women [ sunting ] Status perempuan

Watt states that Islam is still, in many ways, a man’s religion. Watt menyatakan bahwa Islam masih, dalam banyak hal, agama laki-laki. However, he states that Muhammad, in the historical context of his time, can be seen as a figure who testified on behalf of women’s rights and improved things considerably. Namun, ia menyatakan bahwa Muhammad, dalam konteks historis pada zamannya, dapat dilihat sebagai tokoh yang bersaksi atas nama hak-hak perempuan dan hal-hal yang membaik. Watt explains the historical context surrounding women’s rights at the time of Muhammad: “It appears that in some parts of Arabia , notably in Mecca, a matrilineal system was in the process of being replaced by a patrilineal one at the time of Muhammad. Growing prosperity caused by a shifting of trade routes was accompanied by a growth in individualism . Men were amassing considerable personal wealth and wanted to be sure that this would be inherited by their own actual sons, and not simply by an extended family of their sisters’ sons. This led to a deterioration in the rights of women. At the time Islam began, the conditions of women were terrible – they had no right to own property , were supposed to be the property of the man, and if the man died everything went to his sons.” Watt menjelaskan konteks historis sekitar hak-hak perempuan pada saat Muhammad: “Tampaknya bahwa dalam beberapa bagian dari Saudi , khususnya di Mekah, sebuah matrilineal sistem ini dalam proses digantikan oleh satu patrilineal pada saat Muhammad. Growing kemakmuran disebabkan oleh pergeseran rute perdagangan didampingi oleh pertumbuhan individualisme . Orang-orang mengumpulkan kekayaan pribadi yang cukup dan ingin memastikan bahwa ini akan diwarisi oleh anak mereka sendiri yang sebenarnya, dan bukan hanya oleh keluarga besar dari ‘saudara putra mereka. hal ini menyebabkan kemerosotan dalam hak-hak perempuan. Pada saat Islam mulai, kondisi perempuan itu mengerikan – mereka tidak punya hak milik sendiri , seharusnya menjadi milik orang itu, dan jika orang itu mati semua pergi ke putranya. ” Muhammad, however, by “instituting rights of property ownership, inheritance, education and divorce, gave women certain basic safeguards.” [ 34 ] Muhammad, bagaimanapun, dengan “melembagakan hak-hak kepemilikan properti, warisan, pendidikan dan perceraian, memberi perlindungan dasar tertentu perempuan”. [34]

“In the earliest centuries of Islam, the position of women was not bad at all. Only over the course of centuries was she increasingly confined to the house and was forced to veil herself.” [ 33 ] The Quran and Muhammad’s example were more favorable to the security and status of women than history and later Muslim practice might suggest. “Pada abad pertama Islam, posisi perempuan tidak buruk sama sekali. Hanya selama berabad-abad dia semakin terbatas pada rumah dan terpaksa untuk menutupi dirinya sendiri.” [33] Al-Quran dan contohnya Muhammad lebih menguntungkan terhadap keamanan dan status perempuan dari sejarah dan kemudian Islam praktik mungkin menyarankan. For example, the Qur’an does not require women to wear veils ; rather, it was a social habit picked up with the expansion of Islam. Sebagai contoh, Alquran tidak memerlukan perempuan untuk mengenakan kerudung , melainkan merupakan kebiasaan sosial mengambil dengan ekspansi Islam. In fact, since it was impractical for working women to wear veils, “A veiled woman silently announced that her husband was rich enough to keep her idle.” [ 35 ] [ 36 ] Bahkan, karena ini tidak praktis untuk bekerja perempuan untuk mengenakan kerudung, “Seorang wanita berkerudung diam-diam mengumumkan bahwa suaminya cukup kaya untuk tetap idle-nya”. [35] [36]

Haddad and Esposito state that ‘although Islam is often criticized for the low status it has ascribed to women, many scholars believe that it was primarily the interpretation of jurists, local traditions, and social trends which brought about a decline in the status of Muslim women. Esposito Haddad dan negara yang ‘meskipun Islam sering dikritik karena status rendah telah dinisbahkan kepada perempuan, banyak sarjana percaya bahwa itu terutama penafsiran para ahli hukum, tradisi lokal, dan tren sosial yang membawa penurunan status perempuan muslim . In this view Muhammad granted women rights and privileges in the sphere of family life, marriage, education, and economic endeavors, rights that help improve women’s status in society.’ Dalam pandangan ini Muhammad diberikan hak-hak perempuan dan hak-hak dalam bidang kehidupan keluarga, perkawinan, pendidikan, dan usaha ekonomi, hak-hak yang dapat membantu meningkatkan status perempuan di masyarakat. ” However, ‘the Arab Bedouins were dedicated to custom and tradition and resisted changes brought by the new religion.’ Namun, ‘orang Arab Badui yang didedikasikan untuk adat dan tradisi dan menolak perubahan yang dibawa oleh agama baru. ” Haddad and Esposito state that in this view ‘the inequality of Muslim women happened because of the preexisting habits of the people among whom Islam took root. Haddad dan negara Esposito bahwa dalam pandangan ‘ketidaksetaraan perempuan muslim terjadi karena kebiasaan sudah ada orang-orang di antara yang Islam mengambil root. The economics of these early Muslim societies were not favorable to comfortable life for women. Ekonomi masyarakat Muslim awal ini tidak menguntungkan untuk kehidupan yang nyaman bagi perempuan. More important, during Islam’s second and third centuries the interpretation of the Qur’an was in the hands of deeply conservative scholars, whose decisions are not easy to challenge today. Lebih penting lagi, selama berabad-abad Islam kedua dan ketiga penafsiran Al-Qur’an berada di tangan para sarjana sangat konservatif, keputusan yang tidak mudah untuk menantang hari ini. The Qur’an is more favorable to women than is generally realized. Al-Qur’an lebih menguntungkan bagi perempuan daripada umumnya menyadari. In principle, except for a verse or two, the Qur’an grants women equality. Pada prinsipnya, kecuali untuk sebuah ayat atau dua, Alquran memberikan perempuan kesetaraan. For example, Eve was not the delayed product of Adam ‘s rib (as in the tradition for Christians and Jews); the two were born from a single soul. Misalnya, Hawa tidak produk tertunda Adam rusuk s ‘(seperti dalam tradisi untuk orang-orang Kristen dan Yahudi); kedua lahir dari jiwa yang tunggal. It was Adam, not Eve , who let the devil convince them to eat the forbidden fruit . Itu Adam, bukan Hawa , yang membiarkan iblis meyakinkan mereka untuk memakan buah terlarang . Muslim women are instructed to be modest in their dress, but only in general terms. perempuan Muslim diperintahkan untuk sederhana dalam pakaian mereka, tetapi hanya secara umum. Men are also told to be modest. Pria juga diberitahu untuk menjadi sederhana. Many Muslims believe the veiling and seclusion are later male inventions, social habits picked up with the conquest of the Byzantine and Persian Empires.’ [ 37 ] Banyak Muslim percaya bahwa cadar dan pengasingan yang kemudian penemuan laki-laki, kebiasaan sosial mengambil dengan penaklukan dari Bizantium dan Kekaisaran Persia. ” [37]

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[ edit ] Children [ sunting ] Anak-anak

The Qur’an rejected the pre-Islamic idea of children as their fathers’ property and abolished the pre-Islamic custom of adoption. [ 38 ] Alquran menolak gagasan pra-Islam anak-anak sebagai ‘milik ayah mereka dan menghapuskan adat pra-Islam adopsi. [38]

A. Giladi holds that Quran’s rejection of the idea of children as their fathers’ property was a Judeo-Christian influence and was a response to the challenge of structural changes in tribal society. [ 38 ] A. Giladi memegang Quran itu penolakan gagasan anak-anak sebagai ‘milik ayah mereka adalah seorang Yahudi-Kristen mempengaruhi dan merupakan tanggapan terhadap tantangan perubahan struktural dalam masyarakat suku. [38]

The Quran also replaced the pre-Islamic custom of adoption (assimilation of an adopted child into another family in a legal sense) by the recommendation that “believers treat children of unknown origin as their brothers in the faith and clients [ Qur’an 33:4-5 ] , [ Qur’an 33:37-40 ] . Adoption was viewed “as a lie, as an artificial tie between adults and children, devoid of any real emotional relationship, as a cause of confusion where lineage was concerned and thus a possible source of problems regarding marriage between members of the same family and regarding inheritance.But a child that was not born into a family can still be raised by a foster family but the child must retain his identity, such as his last name and lineage. Quran juga mengganti kebiasaan pra-Islam adopsi (asimilasi dari anak yang diadopsi ke dalam keluarga lain dalam arti hukum) dengan rekomendasi yang “beriman merawat anak-anak asal mereka diketahui sebagai saudara dalam iman dan klien [ Alquran 33: 4-5 ], [ Alquran 33:37-40 ]. Adopsi dipandang “sebagai sebuah kebohongan, sebagai dasi buatan antara orang dewasa dan anak-anak, tanpa hubungan emosional yang nyata, sebagai penyebab kebingungan di mana garis keturunan merasa khawatir dan sehingga kemungkinan sumber masalah tentang perkawinan antara anggota keluarga yang sama dan tentang inheritance.But seorang anak yang tidak lahir dalam keluarga masih dapat dibesarkan oleh keluarga angkat tapi anak harus mempertahankan identitasnya, seperti nama belakang dan garis keturunan. In a modern perspective this may seem cruel but in fact if you reflect on this issue you will realize that if both parents were deceased that what they would wish their son would be raised with their identity rather than a strangers personality. Dalam perspektif modern ini mungkin tampak kejam tapi sebenarnya kalau Anda merenungkan isu ini, Anda akan menyadari bahwa jika kedua orang tua almarhum bahwa apa yang mereka ingin anak mereka akan dinaikkan dengan identitas mereka daripada kepribadian orang asing. The prophet has stated that a person who assists and aids an orphan, is on the same footing in heaven to the prophet himself. Nabi telah menyatakan bahwa orang yang membantu dan bantu anak yatim, berada pada pijakan yang sama di surga dengan nabi sendiri. ” [ 38 ][38]

[ edit ] Sociological reforms [ sunting ] reformasi Sosiologi

Sociologist Robert N. Bellah ( Beyond Belief ) argues that Islam in its 7th century origins was, for its time and place, “remarkably modern…in the high degree of commitment, involvement, and participation expected from the rank-and-file members of the community.” Sosiolog Robert N. Bellah (Beyond Belief) berpendapat bahwa Islam di abad ke-7 asal-usulnya itu, untuk waktu dan tempat, “sangat modern … dalam tingkat tinggi komitmen, keterlibatan, dan partisipasi yang diharapkan dari peringkat-dan-file anggota masyarakat. ” This because, he argues, that Islam emphasized on the equality of all Muslims. Ini karena, ia berpendapat, bahwa Islam menekankan pada kesetaraan semua umat Islam. Leadership positions were open to all. Kepemimpinan posisi terbuka bagi semua. However, there were restraints on the early Muslim community that kept it from exemplifying these principles, primarily from the “stagnant localisms” of tribe and kinship. Namun, ada pembatasan pada komunitas Muslim awal yang terus dari mencontohkan prinsip-prinsip ini, terutama dari “localisms stagnan” suku dan kekerabatan. Dale Eickelman writes that Bellah suggests “the early Islamic community placed a particular value on individuals, as opposed to collective or group responsibility.” [ 39 ] Dale Eickelman menulis bahwa Bellah menunjukkan “masyarakat Islam awal menempatkan nilai tertentu pada individu, sebagai lawan kolektif atau tanggung jawab kelompok”. [39]

The Islamic idea of community (that of ummah ), established by Muhammad, is flexible in social, religious, and political terms and includes a diversity of Muslims who share a general sense of common cause and consensus concerning beliefs and individual and communal actions. [ 40 ] Gagasan Islam masyarakat (yang dari ummat), didirikan oleh Muhammad, adalah fleksibel dalam sosial, agama, dan istilah-istilah politik dan mencakup keragaman umat Islam yang memiliki rasa umum penyebab umum dan konsensus tentang keyakinan dan tindakan individu dan komunal. [ 40]

[ edit ] Moral reforms [ sunting ] reformasi Moral

Main article: Islamic ethics Artikel utama: etika Islam

Muslims believe that Muhammad, like other prophets in Islam , was sent by God to remind human beings of their moral responsibility , and challenge those ideas in society which opposed submission to God . Umat Islam percaya bahwa Muhammad, seperti yang lain nabi dalam Islam , dikirim oleh Allah untuk mengingatkan manusia mereka tanggung jawab moral , dan tantangan ide-ide dalam masyarakat yang menentang diserahkan kepada Allah . According to Kelsay, this challenge was directed against five main characteristics of pre-Islamic Arabia: [ 41 ] Menurut Kelsay, tantangan ini ditujukan kepada lima karakteristik utama Arab pra-Islam: [41]

  1. The division of Arabs into varying tribes (based upon blood and kinship). Pembagian Arab ke dalam berbagai suku (berdasarkan darah dan kekerabatan). This categorization was confronted by the ideal of a unified community based upon taqwa (Islamic piety), an ” ummah ;” kategorisasi ini dihadapkan dengan cita-cita dari komunitas yang bersatu berdasarkan taqwa (kesalehan Islam), sebuah umat “;”
  2. The acceptance of the worship of a multitude of deities besides Allah – a view challenged by strict Tawhid (Islamic monotheism), which dictates that Allah has no partner in worship nor any equal; Penerimaan penyembahan banyak dewa selain Allah – tampilan ditantang oleh ketat Tauhid (monoteisme Islam), yang menyatakan bahwa Allah tidak memiliki mitra dalam ibadah maupun yang sama;
  3. The trait of muruwwa ( manliness ), which Islam discouraged, instead emphasizing on the traits of humility and piety; Sifat dari muruwwa ( kejantanan ), yang Islam patah semangat, bukan menekankan pada sifat dari kerendahan hati dan kesalehan;
  4. The focus on achieving fame or establishing a legacy, which was replaced by the concept that mankind would be called to account before God on the Qiyamah (day of resurrection); Fokus pada pencapaian ketenaran atau mendirikan warisan, yang diganti dengan konsep bahwa manusia akan dipanggil untuk account di hadapan Allah pada Qiyamah (hari kebangkitan);
  5. The reverence of and compliance with ancestral traditions, a practice challenged by Islam — which instead assigned primacy to submitting to God and following revelation. The penghormatan dan kepatuhan pada tradisi leluhur, sebuah praktek ditantang oleh Islam – yang bukan mengedepankan ditugaskan mengirimkan kepada Tuhan dan mengikuti wahyu.

These changes lay in the reorientation of society as regards to identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values. Perubahan ini terletak pada reorientasi masyarakat sebagai hal identitas, pandangan dunia, dan hirarki nilai. From the viewpoint of subsequent generations, this caused a great transformation in the society and moral order of life in the Arabian Peninsula. Dari sudut pandang generasi berikutnya, ini menyebabkan transformasi besar dalam masyarakat dan tatanan moral kehidupan di Semenanjung Arab. For Muhammad, although pre-Islamic Arabia exemplified “heedlessness,” it was not entirely without merit. Untuk Muhammad, meskipun Arab pra-Islam dicontohkan “lengah,” itu tidak sepenuhnya tidak berdasar. Muhammad approved and exhorted certain aspects of the Arab pre-Islamic tradition, such as the care for one’s near kin, for widows, orphans, and others in need and for the establishment of justice. Muhammad menyetujui dan mendesak aspek-aspek tertentu dari tradisi Arab pra-Islam, seperti perawatan untuk keluarga dekat salah satu, karena janda, anak yatim, dan orang lain yang membutuhkan dan untuk menegakkan keadilan. However, these values would be re-ordered in importance and placed in the context of strict monotheism . [ 41 ] Namun, nilai-nilai ini akan memerintahkan kembali dalam kepentingan dan ditempatkan dalam konteks yang ketat monoteisme . [41]

Although Muhammad’s preaching produced a “radical change in moral values based on the sanctions of the new religion, and fear of God and of the Last Judgment”, the pre-Islamic tribal practices of the Arabs by no means completely died out. [ 42 ] Meskipun’s khotbah Muhammad menghasilkan radikal perubahan “dalam nilai-nilai moral berdasarkan sanksi agama baru, dan takut akan Tuhan dan Pengadilan Terakhir “, Islam suku praktek pra-Arab tidak berarti benar-benar mati. [42]

[ edit ] Economic reforms [ sunting ] Reformasi Ekonomi

Michael Bonner writes on poverty and economics in the Qur’an that the Qur’an provided a blueprint for a new order in society, in which the poor would be treated more fairly than before. Michael Bonner menulis tentang kemiskinan dan ekonomi dalam Al Qur’an bahwa Al-Qur’an memberikan cetak biru untuk suatu tatanan baru dalam masyarakat, di mana orang miskin akan diperlakukan lebih adil daripada sebelumnya. This “economy of poverty” prevailed in Islamic theory and practice up until the 13th and 14th centuries. Ini ekonomi “kemiskinan” menang dalam teori dan praktek Islam sampai abad ke-13 dan 14. At its heart was a notion of property circulated and purified, in part, through charity, which illustrates a distinctively Islamic way of conceptualizing charity , generosity, and poverty markedly different from “the Christian notion of perennial reciprocity between rich and poor and the ideal of charity as an expression of community love.” Pada intinya adalah gagasan tentang properti beredar dan dimurnikan, sebagian, melalui amal, yang menggambarkan cara yang khas Islam konseptualisasi amal , kedermawanan, dan kemiskinan yang sangat berbeda dari “gagasan Kristen timbal balik abadi antara kaya dan miskin dan ideal amal sebagai ungkapan kasih masyarakat. ” The Qur’an prohibits bad kind of circulation ( riba , often understood as usury or interest ) and asks for good circulation ( zakat [legal alms giving]). Al-Qur’an melarang jenis sirkulasi yang buruk ( riba , sering dipahami sebagai riba atau bunga ) dan meminta untuk sirkulasi yang baik ( zakat [sedekah hukum memberikan]). Some of the recipients of charity appear only once in the Qur’an, and others—such as orphans, parents, and beggars—reappear constantly. Beberapa penerima amal muncul sekali dalam Al Qur’an, dan lain-seperti yatim piatu, orang tua, dan pengemis-muncul terus-menerus. Most common is the triad of kinsfolk, poor, and travelers. [ 43 ] Paling umum adalah tiga serangkai kaum kerabat, miskin, dan wisatawan. [43]

Unlike pre-Islamic Arabian society, the Qur’anic idea of economic circulation as a return of goods and obligations was for everyone, whether donors and recipients know each other or not, in which goods move, and society does what it is supposed to do. Tidak seperti masyarakat Arab pra-Islam, gagasan Al-Quran tentang sirkulasi ekonomi sebagai bentuk pengembalian barang dan kewajiban bagi semua orang, baik penerima donor dan mengenal satu sama lain atau tidak, di mana barang bergerak, dan masyarakat melakukan apa yang seharusnya dilakukan . The Qur’an’s distinctive set of economic and social arrangements, in which poverty and the poor have important roles, show signs of newness. mengatur khas Al-Qur’an tentang pengaturan ekonomi dan sosial, dimana kemiskinan dan kepada orang miskin peran penting, menunjukkan tanda-tanda kebaruan. The Qur’an told that the guidance comes to a community that regulates its flow of money and goods in the right direction (from top down) and practices generosity as reciprocation for God’s bounty. Alquran mengatakan bahwa bimbingan datang ke sebuah komunitas yang mengatur alirannya uang dan barang dalam arah yang benar (dari top down) dan praktik kemurahan hati sebagai balasan untuk karunia Tuhan. In a broad sense, the narrative underlying the Qur’an is that of a tribal society becoming urbanized. Dalam arti luas, yang mendasari kisah Al Qur’an adalah bahwa masyarakat suku menjadi urbanisasi. Many scholars have characterized both the Qur’an and Islam as highly favorable to commerce and to the highly mobile type of society that emerged in the medieval] Near East . Banyak sarjana telah ditandai baik dari Al Qur’an dan Islam sebagai sangat menguntungkan untuk perdagangan dan untuk jenis ponsel yang sangat masyarakat yang muncul dalam] Abad Pertengahan Timur Dekat . Muslim tradition (both hadith and historiography ) maintains that Muhammad did not permit the construction of any buildings in the market of Medina other than mere tents; nor did he permit any tax or rent to be taken there. tradisi Muslim (baik hadits dan sejarah ) menyatakan bahwa Muhammad tidak mengizinkan pembangunan setiap bangunan di pasar Madinah selain hanya tenda, juga tidak mengizinkan pajak atau sewa yang harus diambil di sana. This expression of a ” free market “—involving the circulation of goods within a single space without payment of fees, taxes, or rent, without the construction of permanent buildings, and without any profiting on the part of the caliphal authority (indeed, of the Caliph himself)—was rooted in the term sadaqa , “voluntary alms.” Ini ekspresi dari sebuah ” pasar bebas “-melibatkan sirkulasi barang dalam satu ruang tanpa pembayaran biaya, pajak, atau sewa, tanpa konstruksi bangunan permanen, dan tanpa menguntungkan pada bagian dari khalifah otoritas (memang, dari para Khalifah sendiri)-yang berakar dalam jangka sadaqa , “sedekah sukarela.” This coherent and highly appealing view of the economic universe had much to do with Islam’s early and lasting success. Ini koheren dan sangat menarik melihat alam semesta ekonomi telah banyak kaitannya dengan Islam awal dan abadi kesuksesan. Since the poor were at the heart of this economic universe, the teachings of the Qur’an on poverty had a considerable, even a transforming effect in Arabia, the Near East, and beyond. [ 43 ] Karena miskin di jantung alam semesta ini ekonomi, ajaran-ajaran Al-Qur’an pada kemiskinan memiliki, cukup bahkan efek transformasi di Saudi, Timur Dekat, dan seterusnya. [43]

[ edit ] Civil reforms [ sunting ] reformasi Sipil

Social welfare in Islam started in the form of the construction and purchase of wells. kesejahteraan Sosial dalam Islam dimulai dalam bentuk pembangunan dan pembelian sumur. Upon his hijra to Medina, Muhammad found only one well to be used. Setelah itu hijrah ke Madinah, Muhammad hanya ditemukan satu sumur yang akan digunakan. The Muslims bought that well, and consequently it was used by the general public. Muslim membeli yang baik, dan oleh karena itu digunakan oleh masyarakat umum. After Muhammad’s declaration that “water” was a better form of sadaqah (charity), many of his companions sponsored the digging of new wells. Setelah itu pernyataan Muhammad bahwa “air” adalah suatu bentuk yang lebih baik dari sedekah (amal), banyak dari teman-temannya mensponsori menggali sumur baru. During the Caliphate, the Muslims repaired many of the aging wells in the lands they conquered. [ 44 ] Selama kekhalifahan, umat Islam banyak diperbaiki sumur tua di tanah mereka kuasai. [44]

In addition to wells, the Muslims built many tanks and canals . Di samping sumur, umat Islam dibangun banyak tank dan kanal . Many canals were purchased, and new ones constructed. Banyak saluran yang dibeli, dan yang baru dibangun. While some canals were excluded for the use of monks (such as a spring purchased by Talhah ), and the needy, most canals were open to general public use. Sementara beberapa kanal dikeluarkan untuk penggunaan biarawan (seperti mata air yang dibeli oleh Thalhah ), dan orang miskin, sebagian besar kanal-kanal terbuka untuk digunakan masyarakat umum. Some canals were constructed between settlements, such as the Saad canal that provided water to Anbar , and the Abi Musa Canal to providing water to Basra . [ 45 ] Beberapa kanal dibangun antara permukiman, seperti saluran Saad yang menyediakan air ke Anbar , dan Abi Musa Canal untuk menyediakan air ke Basra . [45]

During a famine, Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab) ordered the construction of a canal in Egypt to connect the Nile with the Red Sea . Selama bencana kelaparan, Umar (Umar ibn al-Khattab) memerintahkan pembangunan kanal di Mesir untuk menghubungkan Nil dengan Laut Merah . The purpose of the canal was to facilitate the transport of grain to Arabia through a sea-route, hitherto transported only by land. Tujuan dari kanal adalah untuk memfasilitasi pengangkutan gandum ke Arabia melalui rute laut, sampai saat diangkut hanya dengan tanah. The canal was constructed within a year by ‘Amr ibn al-‘As , and Abdus Salam Nadiv writes, Arabia was rid of famine for all the times to come.” [ 46 ] Kanal ini dibangun dalam waktu satu tahun oleh ‘Amr bin Al-Ash , dan Abdus Salam Nadiv menulis, Saudi menghilangkan kelaparan untuk semua waktu yang akan datang. ” [46]

[ edit ] Ecological responsibility [ sunting ] Ekologi tanggung jawab

Perhaps due to resource scarcity in most Islamic nations, there was an emphasis on limited (and some claim also sustainable) use of natural capital , ie producing land. Mungkin karena kelangkaan sumber daya di sebagian besar negara Islam, ada penekanan pada yang terbatas dan beberapa klaim (juga berkelanjutan) penggunaan modal alam , tanah menghasilkan yaitu. Traditions of haram and hima and early urban planning were expressions of strong social obligations to stay within carrying capacity and to preserve the natural environment as an obligation of khalifa or ” stewardship “. [ 47 ] Muhammad is considered a pioneer in environmentalism for his teachings on environmental preservation . Tradisi haram dan hima dan awal perencanaan kota adalah ekspresi dari kewajiban sosial yang kuat untuk tetap dalam daya dukung dan melestarikan lingkungan alam sebagai kewajiban khalifah atau ” pelayanan “. [47] Muhammad dianggap sebagai perintis lingkungan hidup untuk ajaran tentang pelestarian lingkungan . His aḥadīth on agriculture and environmental philosophy were compiled in the “Book of Agriculture” of the Sahih al-Bukhari . [ 48 ] hadits Nya di pertanian dan filsafat lingkungan dikumpulkan dalam “Buku Pertanian” dari Sahih al-Bukhari . [48]

[ edit ] Welfare state [ sunting ] Negara Kesejahteraan

Main article: Bayt al-mal Artikel utama: Bayt al-mal

The concepts of welfare and pension were introduced in early Islamic law as forms of Zakat (charity), one of the Five Pillars of Islam , under the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century. Konsep kesejahteraan dan pensiun diperkenalkan pada awal hukum Islam sebagai bentuk zakat (amal), salah satu Rukun Islam , di bawah Khulafaur Rasyidin khalifah Umar di abad ke-7. This practiced continued well into the Abbasid era, as seen under Al-Ma’mun ‘s rule in the 8th century, for example. Hal ini dilakukan terus dengan baik ke dalam Abbasiyah era, seperti yang terlihat di bawah Al-Ma’mun aturan ‘di abad ke-8, misalnya. The taxes (including Zakat and Jizya ) collected in the treasury of an Islamic government were used to provide income for the needy , including the poor , elderly , orphans , widows , and the disabled . The pajak (termasuk zakat dan Jizyah ) dikumpulkan di kas dari Islam pemerintah digunakan untuk menyediakan pendapatan bagi orang miskin , termasuk miskin , tua , yatim piatu , janda , dan cacat . According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali (Algazel, 1058–1111), the government was also expected to stockpile food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred. Menurut ahli hukum Islam Al-Ghazali (Algazel, 1058-1111), pemerintah juga diharapkan untuk persediaan makanan di setiap wilayah dalam sebuah kasus bencana atau kelaparan terjadi. The Caliphate can thus be considered the world’s first major welfare state . [ 49 ] [ 50 ] The Kekhalifahan sehingga dapat dianggap pertama utama dunia negara kesejahteraan . [49] [50]

[ edit ] Political changes [ sunting ] Politik Perubahan

[ edit ] Arabia [ sunting ] Saudi

Islam began in Arabia in the 7th century under the leadership of Muhammad, who eventually united many of the independent nomadic tribes of Arabia under Islamic law. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] There were also some Jewish and Christian tribes in Arabia . Islam mulai di Arabia pada abad ke-7 di bawah pimpinan Muhammad, yang akhirnya banyak bersatu nomaden independen suku-suku Arab di bawah hukum Islam. [51] [52] Ada juga beberapa orang Yahudi dan suku Kristen di Saudi . Initially a pact was made with the Jewish tribes of Medina and they were offered protection and friendship by Muhammed. Awalnya dibuat kesepakatan dengan suku-suku Yahudi Madinah dan mereka memberi perlindungan dan persahabatan oleh Muhammad. However, during the battle of Badr – in which Meccan non-Muslims attacked the Muslims of Medina, the Jewish tribes chose not help the Muslims and instead chose to help the Meccan attackers. Namun, selama perang Badar – di mana Mekah non-Muslim menyerang kaum muslimin dari Madinah, suku Yahudi memilih untuk tidak membantu kaum muslimin dan bukannya memilih untuk membantu para penyerang Mekah. After this incident tensions started arising between Muhammad and the Jews of Medina which soon intensified after the Jewish tribes repeated this in two more battles. Setelah insiden ini mulai timbul ketegangan antara Muhammad dan orang-orang Yahudi Madinah yang intensif segera setelah suku Yahudi mengulangi ini dalam dua pertempuran lebih. Muhammad accused the Jews of Medina of treason and expelled some of them from Medina and wiped out some others who he deemed to be traitors. [ 53 ] Muhammad menuduh orang Yahudi di Madinah pengkhianatan dan beberapa dari mereka diusir dari Madinah dan menyeka beberapa orang lain yang dia dianggap pengkhianat. [53]

[ edit ] Middle East [ sunting ] Timur Tengah

The pre-Islamic Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine and Sassanian empires. Pra-Islam Timur Tengah didominasi oleh Bizantium dan Sassania kerajaan. The Roman–Persian Wars between the two had devastated the inhabitants, making the empires unpopular amongst the local tribes. The -Persia Perang Romawi antara dua telah menghancurkan penduduk, membuat kerajaan tidak populer di antara suku-suku lokal. The Byzantines persecuted Jews as well as Christians they deemed ” heretic “. Bizantium dianiaya orang Yahudi serta orang Kristen mereka dianggap ” sesat “.

During the early Islamic conquests , the Rashidun army , mostly led by Khalid ibn al-Walid and ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, defeated both empires, making the Islamic state the dominant power in the region. [ 54 ] Within only a decade, Muslims conquered Mesopotamia and Persia during the Muslim conquest of Persia and Roman Syria and Roman Egypt during the early Byzantine–Arab Wars . [ 55 ] Selama awal penaklukan Islam , para tentara Khulafaur Rasyidin , sebagian besar dipimpin oleh Khalid bin Al-Walid dan ‘Amr bin Al-Ash, mengalahkan kedua kerajaan, membuat negara Islam kekuatan yang dominan di daerah. [54] Hanya dalam satu dekade, Muslim menaklukkan Mesopotamia dan Persia selama penaklukan Islam Persia dan Romawi Suriah dan Romawi Mesir selama awal Perang Bizantium-Arab . [55]

According to Francis Edwards Peters : Menurut Francis Edwards Peters :

The conquests destroyed little: what they did suppress were imperial rivalries and sectarian bloodletting among the newly subjected population. Penaklukan menghancurkan kecil: apa yang mereka lakukan adalah menekan persaingan kekaisaran dan penyedotan darah sektarian di kalangan penduduk baru dikenakan. The Muslims tolerated Christianity, but they disestablished it; henceforward Christian life and liturgy, its endowments, politics and theology, would be a private and not a public affair. Muslim ditoleransi Kristen, tetapi mereka disestablished itu; kehidupan Kristen untuk selanjutnya dan liturgi, endowmen nya, politik dan teologi, akan menjadi urusan pribadi dan tidak terbuka untuk umum. By an exquisite irony, Islam reduced the status of Christians to that which the Christians had earlier thrust upon the Jews, with one difference. Dengan suatu ironi yang sangat indah, Islam mengurangi status orang Kristen yang mendorong orang-orang Kristen sebelumnya pada orang-orang Yahudi, dengan satu perbedaan. The reduction in Christian status was merely judicial; it was unaccompanied by either systematic persecution or a blood lust, and generally, though not elsewhere and at all times, unmarred by vexatious behavior. Penurunan dalam status Kristen hanya peradilan, melainkan ditemani oleh salah satu penganiayaan sistematis atau nafsu darah, dan umumnya, meskipun tidak di tempat lain dan pada setiap saat, unmarred oleh perilaku menjengkelkan.

The Islamic conquest lowered taxes, and provided greater local autonomy and religious freedom for Jews and as well as most of the Christian Churches in the conquered areas (such as Nestorians , Monophysites , Jacobites and Copts who were deemed heretic by Christian Orthodoxy ). [ 56 ] Bernard Lewis wrote: Penaklukan Islam menurunkan pajak, dan memberikan otonomi daerah yang lebih besar dan kebebasan beragama bagi orang Yahudi dan juga sebagian besar Gereja-gereja Kristen di daerah menaklukkan (seperti Nestorian , Monofisit , Yakobit dan Koptik yang dianggap bidaah oleh Kristen Ortodoks ). [56 ] Bernard Lewis wrote:

Some even among the Christians of Syria and Egypt preferred the rule of Islam to that of Byzantines… The people of the conquered provinces did not confine themselves to simply accepting the new regime, but in some cases actively assisted in its establishment. In Palestine the Samaritans, according to tradition, gave such effective aid to the Arab invaders that they were for some time exempted from certain taxes, and there are many other reports in the early chronicles of local Jewish and Christian assistance.

[ edit ] Other reforms

Islam reduced the devastating effect of blood feuds , which was common among Arabs, by encouraging compensation in money rather than blood. In case the aggrieved party insisted on blood, unlike the pre-Islamic Arab tradition in which any male relative could be slain, only the culprit himself could be executed. [ 32 ] [ 57 ]

The Cambridge History of Islam states that the nomadic structure of pre-Islamic Arabia had the serious moral problem of the care of the poor and the unfortunate. “Not merely did the Qur’an urge men to show care and concern for the needy, but in its teaching about the Last day it asserted the existence of a sanction applicable to men as individuals in matters where their selfishness was no longer restrained by nomadic ideas of dishonour.” [ 58 ]

Islam teaches support for the poor and the oppressed. [ 59 ] In an effort to protect and help the poor and orphans, regular almsgiving — zakat — was made obligatory for Muslims. This regular alms -giving developed into a form of income tax to be used exclusively for welfare . [ 60 ]

[ edit ] Notes [ sunting ] Catatan

  1. ^ Cambridge History of Islam (1970), p.30
  2. ^ a b c d Lewis, Bernard (1998-01-21). “Islamic Revolution” . The New York Review of Books . http://www.nybooks.com/articles/4557 .
  3. ^ Watt (1974), p.234
  4. ^ Robinson (2004) p.21
  5. ^ Esposito (1998), p. 98 98
  6. ^ “Ak̲h̲lāḳ”, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
  7. ^ a b c Nancy Gallagher, Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, Infanticide and Abandonment of Female Children
  8. ^ Bernard Lewis, Arabs in History , p.45-46
  9. ^ See: ^ Lihat:
    • Firestone (1999) p. 118; 118;
    • “Muhammad”, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
  10. ^ Watt. ^ Watt. Muhammad at Medina and RB Serjeant “The Constitution of Medina.” Islamic Quarterly 8 (1964) p.4. Muhammad di Madinah dan polisi pengadilan RB “Konstitusi Madinah.” Islam Kuartalan 8 (1964) P.4.
  11. ^ RB Serjeant, The Sunnah Jami’ah, pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrim of Yathrib: Analysis and translation of the documents comprised in the so-called “Constitution of Medina.” ^ RB polisi pengadilan, The Sunnah Jami’ah, pakta dengan orang-orang Yahudi Yatsrib, dan dari Yatsrib Tahrim: Analisis dan terjemahan dokumen terdiri dalam apa yang disebut “Konstitusi Madinah.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. Buletin Sekolah Studi Oriental dan Afrika, Universitas London, Vol. 41, No. 1. 1978), page 4.
  12. ^ Watt. Muhammad at Medina . ^ Watt. Muhammad di Madinah. pp. 227-228 Watt argues that the initial agreement was shortly after the hijra and the document was amended at a later date specifically after the battle of Badr . Serjeant argues that the constitution is in fact 8 different treaties which can be dated according to events as they transpired in Medina with the first treaty being written shortly after Muhammad’s arrival. RB Serjeant. RB polisi pengadilan. “The Sunnah Jâmi’ah, Pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrîm of Yathrib: Analysis and Translation of the Documents Comprised in the so called ‘Constitution of Medina’.” “The Jâmi’ah Sunnah, pakta dengan orang-orang Yahudi Yatsrib, dan Tahrîm dari Yatsrib: Analisis dan Penjabaran Dokumen Terdiri dalam apa yang disebut ‘Konstitusi Madinah’.” in The Life of Muhammad: The Formation of the Classical Islamic World : Volume iv. Ed. Ed. Uri Rubin. Uri Rubin. Brookfield: Ashgate, 1998, p. Brookfield: Ashgate, 1998, hal 151 and see same article in BSOAS 41 (1978): 18 ff. See also Caetani. Annali dell’Islam, Volume I . Milano: Hoepli, 1905, p. Lihat juga Caetani dell’Islam. Annali, Volume I:. Milano Hoepli, 1905, hal 393. 393. Julius Wellhausen. Skizzen und Vorabeiten , IV, Berlin: Reimer, 1889, p 82f who argue that the document is a single treaty agreed upon shortly after the hijra. Wellhausen argues that it belongs to the first year of Muhammad’s residence in Medina, before the battle of Badr in 2/624. Wellhausen bases this judgement on three considerations; first Muhammad is very diffident about his own position, he accepts the pagan tribes within the Ummah , and maintains the Jewish clans as clients of the Ansars see Wellhausen, Excursus, p. 158. 158. Even Moshe Gil a skeptic of Islamic history argues that it was written within 5 months of Muhammad’s arrival in Medina. Bahkan Moshe Gil yang skeptis sejarah Islam berpendapat bahwa itu ditulis dalam waktu 5 bulan setelah kedatangan Muhammad di Madinah. Moshe Gil. Moshe Gil. “The Constitution of Medina: A Reconsideration.” Israel Oriental Studies 4 (1974): p. “Konstitusi Madinah: A peninjauan kembali.” Studi Oriental Israel 4 (1974): p. 45. 45.
  13. ^ Encyclopedia of World History (1998), p.452, Oxford University Press
  14. ^ a b c d e f John Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path p. 79 79
  15. ^ Esposito, John (2002). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam . Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 0-19-515435-5 .
  16. ^ Donna Lee Bowen, Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an , Infanticide
  17. ^ Watt (1961), p. 229 229
  18. ^ Maududi (1967), Introduction of Ad-Dahr , “Period of revelation”, pg. 159 159
  19. ^ a b c Bernard Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East , Oxford Univ Press 1994, chapter 1
  20. ^ Bernard Lewis, (1992), pp. 78-79
  21. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an , Slaves and Slavery
  22. ^ Nigosian, SA (2004). Islam. Its History, Teaching, and Practices . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 115.
  23. ^ ( [ Qur’an 4:92 ] , [ Qur’an 5:92 ] , [ Qur’an 58:3 ] )
  24. ^ ( [ Qur’an 2:177 ] , [ Qur’an 24:33 ] , [ Qur’an 90:13 ] )
  25. ^ Lewis 1990, page 6. All Qur’anic citations are his.
  26. ^ a b c Turner, Brian S. Islam ( ISBN 041512347X ). Routledge: 2003, p77-78 .
  27. ^ Unni Wikan, review of Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East , American Ethnologist, Vol. ^ Unni Wikan, tinjauan Modernisasi Perempuan: Gender dan Perubahan Sosial di Timur Tengah, Amerika etnolog, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Nov., 1995), pp. 1078-1079 22, No 4 (November, 1995), hal. 1078-1079
  28. ^ Valentine M. Moghadam. Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East . ^ Valentine M. Moghadam:. Modernisasi Jender Perempuan dan Perubahan Sosial di Timur Tengah. ( Lynne Rienner Publishers , USA, 1993) p. 5 5
  29. ^ a b c d Majid Khadduri , Marriage in Islamic Law: The Modernist Viewpoints , American Journal of Comparative Law , Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 213-218
  30. ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, second edition, Lindsay Jones, p.6224, ISBN 0-02-865742-X
  31. ^ a b c The Oxford Dictionary of Islam (2003), p.339
  32. ^ a b Gerhard Endress, Islam: An Introduction to Islam , Columbia University Press , 1988, p.31
  33. ^ a b Annemarie Schimmel, Islam-: An Introduction , p.65, SUNY Press, 1992
  34. ^ Interview: William Montgomery Watt , by Bashir Maan & Alastair McIntosh (1999). A paper using the material on this interview was published in The Coracle, the Iona Community , summer 2000, issue 3:51, pp. 8-11.
  35. ^ Bloom and Blair (2002) p.46-47
  36. ^ Michael J. Perry, The Idea of Human Rights: Four Inquiries , p.78, Oxford University Press US
  37. ^ Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, John L. Esposito, Islam, Gender, and Social Change , Oxford University Press US, 2004, p.163
  38. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of Islam , saghir
  39. ^ “Social Sciences and the Qur’an,” in Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an, vol. 5, ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Leiden: Brill, pp. 66-76.
  40. ^ “Community and Society in the Qur’an,” in Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an, vol. 1, ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Leiden: Brill, pp. 385.
  41. ^ a b Islamic ethics , Encyclopedia of Ethics
  42. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam Online, Akhlaq
  43. ^ a b Michael Bonner, “Poverty and Economics in the Qur’an”, Journal of Interdisciplinary History , xxxv:3 (Winter, 2005), 391–406
  44. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 403-4
  45. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 405-6
  46. ^ Nadvi (2000), pg. 407-8
  47. ^ S. Nomanul Haq, “Islam”, in Dale Jamieson (2001), A Companion to Environmental Philosophy , pp. 111-129, Blackwell Publishing , ISBN 140510659X .
  48. ^ S. ^ S. Nomanul Haq, “Islam”, in Dale Jamieson (2001), A Companion to Environmental Philosophy , pp. 111-129 [119-129], Blackwell Publishing , ISBN 140510659X .
  49. ^ Crone, Patricia (2005), Medieval Islamic Political Thought , Edinburgh University Press , pp. 308–9, ISBN 0748621946
  50. ^ Shadi Hamid (August 2003), “An Islamic Alternative? Equality, Redistributive Justice, and the Welfare State in the Caliphate of Umar”, Renaissance: Monthly Islamic Journal 13 (8)   (see online ) (Lihat online )
  51. ^ Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1A (1977), p.57
  52. ^ Hourani (2003), p.22
  53. ^ Esposito (1998), pp.10-11
  54. ^ Sonn, pg.24-6
  55. ^ Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, extended edition, p.35
  56. ^ Esposito, Islam: The Straight Path, extended edition, p.36
  57. ^ Bloom and Blair (2002) p.46
  58. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam (1970), p. 34 34
  59. ^ Nasr (2004), The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity , p. 104, ISBN 0-06-073064-1 .
  60. ^ Minou Reeves (2000), Muhammad in Europe , New York University Press , p. 42. 42.

[ edit ] References [ sunting ] Referensi

  • Forward, Martin (1998). Muhammad: A Short Biography . Oxford: Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-131-0 .
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam . US: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05419-3 .
  • PJ Bearman, Th. Bianquis, CE Bosworth , E. van Donzel and WP Heinrichs (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Islam Online . Brill Academic Publishers . ISSN 1573-3912.
  • Watt, William Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman . United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4 .
  • Jonathan M. Bloom, Sheila S. Blair (1974). Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power . Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09422-1 .
  • Manning, Patrick (1990). Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades . Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-34867-6 .
  • Nadvi, Abdus Salam (2000). The ways of the Sahabah . Karachi: Darul Ishaat.   Translated by Muhammad Yunus Qureshi.
  • Schimmel, Annemarie (1992). Islam: An Introduction . US: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-1327-6 .
  • Sonn, Tamara (2004). A Brief History of Islam . Sonn, Tamara (2004). A Brief History Islam. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-0900-9 .

[ edit ] See also [ sunting ] Lihat pula