ISTRI-ISTRI NABI MUHAMMAD

Pernikahan Muhammad

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Nabi Islam Muhammad



Ibu-ibu dari orang-orang yang beriman (Arab: أمهات المؤمنين) adalah istilah Islam yang merupakan penyebutan kehormatan bagi istri-istri dari Nabi Muhammad. Muslim menggunakan istilah tersebut sebelum atau sesudah nama istri beliau. Istilah ini diambil dari ayat Quran, Surah Al-Ahzab ayat 6.

Nabi itu (hendaknya) lebih utama bagi orang-orang mukmin dari diri mereka sendiri dan isteri-isterinya adalah ibu-ibu mereka…

Nabi Muhammad seringkali disebutkan menikah dengan 11 orang perempuan. Terdapat anggapan bahwa ia menikah dengan dua orang perempuan lainnya, tetapi diceraikannya sebelum mereka sempat bersama-sama.[rujukan?]

Daftar isi

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[sunting] Khadijah binti Khuwailid

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Khadijah binti Khuwailid

Ia merupakan isteri Nabi Muhammad yang pertama. Sebelum menikah dengan Nabi, ia pernah menjadi isteri dari Atiq bin Abid dan Abu Halah bin Malik dan telah melahirkan empat orang anak, dua dengan suaminya yang bernama Atiq, yaitu Abdullah dan Jariyah, dan dua dengan suaminya Abu Halah yaitu Hindun dan Zainab.

Berbagai riwayat memaparkan bahwa saat Muhammad s.a.w. menikah dengan Khadijah, umur Khadijah berusia 40 tahun sedangkan Nabi hanya berumur 25 tahun. Tetapi menurut Ibnu Katsir, seorang tokoh dalam bidang tafsir, hadis dan sejarah, mereka menikah dalam usia yang sebaya. Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. bersama dengannya sebagai suami isteri selama 25 tahun yaitu 15 tahun sebelum menerima wahyu pertama dan 10 tahun setelahnya hingga wafatnya Khadijah, kira-kira 3 tahun sebelum hijrah ke Madinah. Khadijah wafat saat ia berusia 50 tahun.

Ia merupakan isteri nabi Muhammad s.a.w. yang tidak pernah dimadu, karena semua isterinya yang dimadu dinikahi setelah wafatnya Khadijah. Di samping itu, semua anak Nabi kecuali Ibrahim adalah anak kandung Khadijah.

Maskawin dari nabi Muhammad s.a.w. sebanyak 20 bakrah dan upacara perkawinan diadakan oleh ayahnya Khuwailid. Riwayat lain menyatakan, upacara itu dilakukan oleh saudaranya Amr bin Khuwailid.

Pernikahannya dengan Khadijah menghasilkan keturunan hanya enam orang, yaitu: Al Qosim, Zainab, Rukayah, Ummu Kultsum, Fatimah, dan Abdullah.

Al Qosim mendapat julukan Abul Qosim, sedangkan Abdullah mempunyai julukan at Thoyib at Thohir yang berarti “Yang Bagus dan Lagi Suci”.

[sunting] Saudah binti Zam’ah

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Saudah binti Zam’ah

Nabi menikah dengan Saudah setelah wafatnya Khadijah dalam bulan itu juga.

Saudah adalah seorang janda tua. Suami pertamanya ialah al-Sakran bin Amr. Saudah dan suaminya al-Sakran adalah di antara mereka yang pernah berhijrah ke Habsyah. Saat suaminya meninggal dunia setelah pulang dari Habsyah, maka Rasulullah telah mengambilnya menjadi isteri untuk memberi perlindungan kepadanya dan memberi penghargaan yang tinggi kepada suaminya.

Acara pernikahan dilakukan oleh Salit bin Amr. Riwayat lain menyatakan upacara dilakukan oleh Abu Hatib bin Amr. Maskawinnya ialah 400 dirham. ???

[sunting] Aisyah binti Abu Bakar

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Aisyah binti Abu Bakar

Akad nikah diadakan di Mekkah sebelum Hijrah, tetapi setelah wafatnya Khadijah dan setelah nabi Muhammad menikah dengan Saudah. Ketika itu Aisyah berumur 6 tahun. Rasulullah tidak bersama dengannya sebagai suami isteri melainkan setelah berhijrah ke Madinah. Ketika itu, Aisyah berumur 9 tahun sementara nabi Muhammad berumur 53 tahun.

Aisyah adalah satu-satunya isteri rasulullah yang masih gadis pada saat dinikahi. Saat itu Aisyah berumur 9. Upacara dilakukan oleh ayahnya Abu Bakar dengan maskawin 400 dirham.

lebih jauh dapat dibaca di: http://erzal.wordpress.com/category/pernikahan-nabi-muhammad-dengan-siti-aisyah/

[sunting] Hafshah binti Umar bin al-Khattab

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Hafshah binti Umar

Hafsah seorang janda. Suami pertamanya Khunais bin Hudhafah al-Sahmiy yang meninggal dunia saat Perang Badar. Ayahnya Umar meminta Abu Bakar menikah dengan Hafsah, tetapi Abu Bakar tidak menyatakan persetujuan apapun dan Umar mengadu kepada nabi Muhammad.

Kemudia rasulullah mengambil Hafsah sebagai isteri.

[sunting] Ummu Salamah

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Ummu Salamah

Salamah seorang janda tua mempunyai 4 anak dengan suami pertama yang bernama Abdullah bin Abd al-Asad. Suaminya syahid dalam Perang Uhud dan saudara sepupunya turut syahid pula dalam perang itu lalu nabi Muhammad melamarnya. Mulanya lamaran ditolak karena menyadari usia tuanya. Alasan umur turut digunakannya ketika menolak lamaran Abu Bakar dan Umar al Khattab.

Lamaran kali kedua nabi Muhammad diterimanya dengan maskawin sebuah tilam, mangkuk dari sebuah pengisar tepung.

[sunting] Ummu Habibah binti Abu Sufyan

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Ummu Habibah

Ummu Habibah seorang janda. Suami pertamanya Ubaidillah bin Jahsyin al-Asadiy. Ummu Habibah dan suaminya Ubaidullah pernah berhijrah ke Habsyah. Ubaidullah meninggal dunia ketika di rantau dan Ummu Habibah yang berada di Habsyah kehilangan tempat bergantung.

Melalui al Najashi, nabi Muhammad melamar Ummu Habibah dan upacara pernikahan dilakukan oleh Khalid bin Said al-As dengan maskawin 400 dirham, dibayar oleh al Najashi bagi pihak nabi.

[sunting] Juwairiyah (Barrah) binti Harits

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Juwairiyah binti Harits

Ayah Juwairiyah ialah ketua kelompok Bani Mustaliq yang telah mengumpulkan bala tentaranya untuk memerangi nabi Muhammad dalam Perang al-Muraisi’.

Setelah Bani al-Mustaliq tewas dan Barrah ditawan oleh Tsabit bin Qais bin al-Syammas al-Ansariy. Tsabit hendak dimukatabah dengan 9 tahil emas, dan Barrah pun mengadu kepada nabi.

Rasulullah bersedia membayar mukatabah tersebut, kemudian menikahinya.

[sunting] Shafiyah binti Huyay

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Shafiyah binti Huyay

Shafiyah anak dari Huyay, ketua suku Bani Nadhir, yaitu salah satu Bani Israel yang berdiam di sekitar Madinah. Dalam Perang Khaibar, Shafiyah dan suaminya Kinanah bin al-Rabi telah tertawan. Dalam satu perundingan setelah dibebaskan, Safiyah memilih untuk menjadi isteri nabi Muhammad.

[sunting] Zainab binti Jahsy

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Zainab binti Jahsy

Zainab merupakan isteri Zaid bin Haritsah, yang pernah menjadi budak dan kemudian menjadi anak angkat nabi Muhammad s.a.w. setelah dia dimerdekakan.

Hubungan suami isteri antara Zainah dan Zaid tidak bahagia karena Zainab dari keturunan mulia, tidak mudah patuh dan tidak setaraf dengan Zaid. Zaid telah menceraikannya walaupun telah dinasihati oleh nabi Muhammad s.a.w. .

Upacara pernikahan dilakukan oleh Abbas bin Abdul-Muththalib dengan maskawin 400 dirham, dibayar bagi pihak nabi Muhammad s.a.w.

[sunting] Zainab binti Khuzaimah

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Zainab binti Khuzaimah

Zainab binti Khuzaimah meninggal dunia sewaktu nabi Muhammad s.a.w. masih hidup.

[sunting] Maria al-Qibtiyyah

!Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Maria al-Qibtiyyah

Mariah al-Qibthiyah ialah satu-satunya istri Nabi yang berasal dari Mesir. Ia seorang mantan budak Nabi yang telah dinikahi dan satu-satunya pula yang dengannya Nabi memperoleh anak selain Khadijah yakni Ibrahim namun sayangnya meninggal dalam usia 4 tahun.

[sunting] Referensi

  • Profesor Madya Dr. Ishak Mohd. Rejab, Rasulullah Sebagai Ketua Keluarga, Yayasan Dakwah Islamiah Malaysia, 1988.

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Isteri-isteri Nabi Muhammad s.a.w.

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Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. pernah berkahwin dengan 13 orang perempuan. Sebelas daripadanya pernah bersama dengan Baginda sebagai suami isteri, manakala dua daripadanya diceraikan sebelum mereka bersama.

  1. Khadijah bt. Khuwailid al-Asadiyah r.a
  2. Saudah bt. Zam’ah al-Amiriyah al Quraisiyah r.a
  3. Aisyah bt Abi Bakr r.a
  4. Hafsah bt. Umar bin al-Khattab r.a
  5. Ummu Salamah Hindun bt. Abi Umaiyah r.a
  6. Ummu Habibah Ramlah bt. Abi sufian r.a
  7. Juwairiyah ( Barrah ) bt. Harith
  8. Safiyah bt. Huyay
  9. Zainab bt. Jansyin
  10. Asma’ bt. al-Nu’man al-Kindiyah
  11. Umrah bt. Yazid al-Kilabiyah
  12. Zainab bin Khuzaimah
  13. Maria al-Qibtiyyah (Maria The Copt)

Isi kandungan

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[sunting] Khadijah bt. Khuwailid al-Asadiyah r.a

Beliau adalah merupakan isteri nabi Muhammad s.a.w. yang pertama. Sebelum berkahwin dengan baginda, beliau pernah menjadi isteri kepada Atiq bin Abid dan Abi Halah bin Malik dan telah mempunyai empat anak, dua dengan suaminya yang bernama Atiq, iaitu Abdullah dan Jariyah, dan dua dengan suaminya Abu Halah iaitu Hindun dan Zainab.

Banyak kisah memaparkan bahawa sewaktu nabi Muhammad s.a.w. bernikah dengan Khadijah, umur Khadijah berusia 40 tahun sedangkan nabi Muhammad s.a.w. hanya berumur 25 tahun. Tetapi menurut Ibnu Kathir, seorang tokoh dalam bidang tafsir, hadis dan sejarah, mereka berkahwin dalam usia yang sebaya. Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. bersama dengannya sebagai suami isteri selama 25 tahun iaitu 15 tahun sebelum bithah dan 10 tahun selepasnya iaitu sehingga wafatnya Khadijah, kira-kira 3 tahun sebelum hijrah. Khadijah wafat semasa beliau berusia 50 tahun.

Beliau merupakan isteri nabi Muhammad s.a.w. yang tidak pernah dimadukan kerana kesemua isterinya yang dimadukan adalah berlaku selepas daripada wafatnya Khadijah. Di samping itu, kesemua anak baginda kecuali Ibrahim adalah kandungannya.

Mas kahwin daripada nabi Muhammad s.a.w. sebanyak 20 bakrah dan upacara perkahwinan diadakan oleh ayahnya Khuwailid. Riwayat lain menyatakan, upacara itu dilakukan oleh saudaranya Amr bin Khuwailid.

[sunting] Anak-anak Rasulullah bersama Khadijah

Diriwayatkan bahawa anak perempuan Nabi Muhammad SAW iaitu Fatimah Az-Zaharah telah berkahwin dengan Khalifah Saidina Ali bin Abi Talib.

Kesemua ketiga – tiga anak lelaki Rasullullah telah meninggal dunia sejak kecil lagi.Tujuan Allah SWT mencabut semua nyawa anak lelaki Nabi adalah bagi mengelakkan supaya tiada lagi wujud Nabi dan Rasul yang baru sesudah Nabi Muhammad,hal ini kerana Nabi Muhammad adalah Nabi dan Rasul yang terakhir diutuskan Allah sesudah Nabi Isa diatas muka bumi ini.Nabi Muhammad adalah Nabi dan Rasul bagi seluruh umat alam buana dan semesta sehinggalah ke Hari kiamat.

[sunting] Saudah bt. Zam’ah al-Amiriyah al Quraisiyah r.a

Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. berkahwin dengan Saudah setelah wafatnya Khadijah 3 tahun. Saudah adalah seorang janda tua. Suami pertamanya ialah al-Sakran bin Amr. Saudah dan suaminya al-Sakran adalah di antara mereka yang pernah berhijrah ke Habsyah. Apabila suaminya meninggal dunia setelah pulang dari Habsyah, maka nabi Muhammad s.a.w. telah mengambilnya menjadi isteri untuk memberi perlindungan kepadanya dan memberi penilaian yang tinggi kepada suaminya.

Acara perkahwinan dilakukan oleh Salit bin Amr. Riwayat lain menyatakan upacara dilakukan oleh Abu Hatib bin Amr. Mas kahwinnya ialah 400 dirham.

[sunting] Aishah bt Abu Bakar

Akad nikah diadakan di Mekah sebelum Hijrah, tetapi setelah wafatnya Khadijah dan setelah nabi Muhammad s.a.w. berkahwin dengan Saudah. Ketika itu Aisyah berumur 16 tahun. Rasulullah tidak bersama dengannya sebagai suami isteri melainkan setelah berhijrah ke Madinah. Ketika itu, Aisyah berumur 19 tahun sementara nabi Muhammad s.a.w. berumur 53 tahun.Umur Aisyah dan kekeliruan akibat dari perpecahan dalam Islam akibat fitnah syi’ah yang membenci Ummmul Mukminin

Aisyah adalah isteri nabi Muhammad s.a.w. yang tunggal yang dikahwininya semasa gadis. Upacara dilakukan oleh ayahnya Abu Bakar dengan mas kahwin 400 dirham.

[sunting] Hafsah bt. Umar bin al-Khattab r.a

Hafsah seorang janda. Suami pertamanya Khunais bin Hudhafah al-Sahmiy yang meninggal dunia selepas Perang Badar. Bapanya Umar mempelawa Abu Bakar berkahwin dengan Hafsah, tetapi Abu Bakar tidak menyatakan sebarang persetujuan dan Umar mengadu kepada nabi Muhammad s.a.w.. Lalu baginda mengambil Hafsah sebagai isteri.

[sunting] Ummu Salamah Hindun bt. Abi Umaiyah r.a

Salamah seorang janda tua mempunyai 4 anak dengan suami pertama yang bernama Abdullah bin Abd al-Asad. Suaminya terkorban dalam Perang Uhud dan saudara sepupunya turut terkorban dalam perang itu lalu nabi Muhammad s.a.w. melamarnya. Mulanya lamaran ditolak kerana menyedari usia tuanya. Alasan umur turut digunakannya ketika menolak lamaran Abu Bakar dan Umar al Khattab.

Lamaran kali kedua nabi Muhammad s.a.w. diterimanya dengan mas kahwin sebuah tilam, mangkuk dari sebuah pengisar tepung.

[sunting] Ummu Habibah Ramlah bt. Abi sufian r.a

Ummu Habibah seorang janda. Suami pertamanya Ubaidullah bin Jahsyin al-Asadiy. Ummu Habibah dan suaminya Ubaidullah pernah berhijrah ke Habsyah. Ubaidullah meninggal dunia ketika di rantau dan Ummu Habibah yang berada di Habsyah kehilangan tempat bergantung.

Melalui al Najashi, nabi Muhammad s.a.w. melamar Ummu Habibah dan upacara perkahwinan dilakukan oleh Khalid bin Said al-As dengan mas kahwin 400 dirham, dibayar oleh al Najashi bagi pihak nabi.

[sunting] Juwairiyah ( Barrah ) bt. Harith

Ayah Juwairiyah ialah ketua puak Bani al-Mustaliq yang telah mengumpulkan bala tenteranya untuk memerangi nabi Muhammad s.a.w. dalam Perang al-Muraisi’. Bani al-Mustaliq telah tewas dan Barrah telah ditawan oleh Thabit bin Qais bin al-Syammas al-Ansariy. Thabit mahu dia dimukatabah dengan 9 tahil emas Barrah mengadu kepada nabi. Baginda sedia membayar mukatabah tersebut dan seterusnya mengahwininya.

[sunting] Safiyah bt. Huyay

Safiyah anak kepada Huyay, ketua puak Bani Quraizah iaitu dari keturunan Nabi Harun a.s. Dalam Perang Khaibar, suaminya seorang Yahudi telah ditawan dan Safiyah telah ditawan. Dalam satu rundingan setelah dibebaskan, Safiyah telah memilih untuk menjadi isteri nabi Muhammad s.a.w.. Safiyyah meriwayatkan 10 hadis dan meninggal dunia dalam bulan Ramadhan tahun ke-50H (ada yang mengatakan 52H). Dia dikebumikan di al Baqi’.

[sunting] Zainab bt. Jahsyin

Zainab merupakan isteri kepada Zaid ibn Harithah, yang pernah menjadi hamba dan kemudian menjadi anak angkat nabi Muhammad s.a.w. setelah dia dimerdekakan.

Hubungan suami isteri antara Zainab dan Zaid tidak bahagia kerana Zainab dari keturunan mulia, tidak mudah patuh dan tidak setaraf dengan Zaid. Zaid telah menceraikannya walaupun telah dinasihati oleh nabi Muhammad s.a.w. .

Upacara perkahwinan dilakukan oleh al-Abbas bin Abd al-Muttalib dengan mas kahwin 400 dirham, dibayar bagi pihak nabi Muhammad s.a.w.

[sunting] Umrah bt. Yazid al-Kilabiyah

Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. berkahwin dengan Umrah ketika Umrah baru sahaja memeluk agama Islam. Umrah telah diceraikan dan dipulangkan kepada keluarganya.

[sunting] Zainab bt Khuzaimah

Zainab binti Khuzaimah meninggal dunia sewaktu nabi Muhammad s.a.w. masih hidup.

[sunting] Maria al-Qibtiyyah

Maria al-Qibtiyyah, English;(Maria The Copt) merupakan salah seorang isteri kepada Muhammad Rasulullah.

[sunting] Rujukan

  • Profesor Madya Dr. Ishak Mohd. Rejab, ‘Rasulullah Sebagai Ketua Keluarga’, Yayasan Dakwah Islamiah Malaysia, 1988.
  • Dipetik dari buku soal jawab berkaitan Rasullulah oleh Hj Ahmad bin Haji Awang.

[sunting] Pautan luar

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Muhammad’s wives

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Part of a series on Islam

Umm-al-Momineen
Wives of Muhammad
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid

Sawda bint Zama

Aisha bint Abi Bakr

Hafsa bint Umar

Zaynab bint Khuzayma

Hind bint Abi Umayya

Zaynab bint Jahsh

Juwayriya bint al-Harith

Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan

Rayhana bint Amr

Safiyya bint Huyayy

Maymuna bint al-Harith

Maria al-Qibtiyya

Muhammad’s wives were the eleven women married to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muslims refer to them as Mothers of the Believers (Arabic: Ummu l-Mu’minīn). Muslims use the term prominently before or after referring to them as a sign of respect. The term is derived from the Qur’anic verse [Qur'an 33:6]

The Prophet is closer to the believers than their selves, and his wives are (as) their mothers.[1]

Muhammad’s life is traditionally delineated as two epochs: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca, a city in northern Arabia, from the year 570 to 622, and post-hijra in Medina, from 622 until his death in 632. All but two of his marriages were contracted after the Hijra (migration to Medina). The verse’s interpretation mandated that Muslims were forbidden to marry Muhammad’s widows and should regard them as they would their own mothers.

Contents

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[edit] History

A series of articles on


Prophet of Islam
Muhammad


Life
Companions · wives · Family tree · In Mecca · In Medina · Conquest of Mecca · The Farewell Sermon · Succession


Career
Diplomacy · Family · Wives · Military leadership


Succession
Farewell Pilgrimage · Ghadir Khumm · Pen and paper · Saqifah · General bay’ah


Interactions with
Slaves · Jews · Christians


Perspectives
Muslim (Poetic and Mawlid) · Medieval Christian · Historicity · Criticism · Depictions

v d e

During his life Muhammad married eleven or thirteen women depending upon the differing accounts of who were his wives.

In Arabian culture, marriage was generally contracted in accordance with the larger needs of the tribe and was based on the need to form alliances within the tribe and with other tribes. Virginity at the time of marriage was emphasized as a tribal honor.[2] Watt states that all of Muhammad’s marriages had the political aspect of strengthening friendly relationships and were based on the Arabian custom.[3] Esposito points out that some of Muhammad’s marriages were aimed at providing a livelihood for widows.[4] Francis Edwards Peters says that it is hard to make generalizations about Muhammad’s marriages: many of them were political, some compassionate, and some perhaps affairs of the heart.[5]

[edit] Khadijah bint Khuwaylid

At age 25, Muhammad wed his employer, the 40 year old merchant Khadijah. The marriage, his first, would be both happy and monogamous; Muhammad would rely on Khadijah in many ways, until her death 25 years later.[6][7][8] They had two sons, Qasim and Abd-Allah (nicknamed al Tahir and al Tayyib), and four daughters -Zainab, Ruqaiya, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah. There is a dispute over the paternity of Khadijah’s daughters, as Shia scholars view them as the product of previous marriages.[9] During their marriage, Khadija purchased the slave Zayd ibn Harithah at Muhammad’s request -who then adopted the young man as his son.[10]

[edit] Al-Hijrah

The death of Khadija left Muhammad lonely, and, before he left for Medina, it was suggested to him that he marry Sawda bint Zama, who had suffered many hardships after she became a Muslim. Muhammad married her in Shawwal, when she was about 55 years old, in the tenth year of Prophethood, after the death of Khadijah. Prior to that, she was married to a paternal cousin of hers called As-Sakran bin ‘Amr. At about the same period, Aisha (daughter of his close friend Abu Bakr) was betrothed to Muhammad.[11] Aisha was initially betrothed to Jubayr ibn Mut’im, a Muslim whose father, though pagan, was friendly to the Muslims. When Khawla bint Hakim suggested that Muhammad marry Aisha after the death of Muhammad’s first wife (Khadijah bint Khuwaylid), the previous agreement regarding marriage of Aisha with ibn Mut’im was put aside by common consent.[11]

As life became unbearable for him, Muhammad migrated to Medina. Because of Meccan attempts at his life Muhammad traveled only with Abu Bakr and the rest of his family traveled in stages. His wife Sawda and his daughters Fatimah and Umm Kulthum traveled with Zayd ibn Harithah, while his other wife Aisha travelled with her brother ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. Regarding his other daughters: Zainab’s husband prevented her from migrating, and Ruqayyah was with her husband Uthman Ibn Affan in Abyssinia and migrated much later.[12]

Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad. She stayed in her parents’ home until the age of nine, when the marriage was consummated in Medina.[13][11][14][15] Both Aisha and Sawda, his two wives, were given apartments adjoined to the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi mosque.[12] Muhammad wished to divorce Sawda, who offered to give her turn of Muhammad’s conjugal visit to Aisha to prevent this, and the incident is referred to in the Qur’an 4:127.[16]

[edit] War with Mecca

During the Muslim war with Mecca, many men were killed leaving behind widows and orphans. Hafsa bint Umar, daughter of Umar (‘Umar bin Al-Khattab), was widowed at battle of Badr when her husband Khunais ibn Hudhaifa was killed in action. Muhammad married her in 3 A.H./625 C.E.[17] Zaynab bint Khuzayma was also widowed at the battle of Badr. She was the wife of ‘Ubaydah b. al-Hārith,[18] a faithful Muslim and from the tribe of al-Muttalib, for which Muhammad had special responsibility.[19] When her husband died, Muhammad aiming to provide for her, married her 4 A.H. She was nicknamed Umm Al-Masakeen (roughly translates as the mother of the poor), because of her kindness and charity.[20]

Close to Aisha’s age, both Hafsa and Zaynab were welcomed into the household. Sawda, who was much older, extended her motherly benevolence to the younger women. Aisha and Hafsa had a lasting relationship. As for Zaynab, however, she fell ill and passed away eight months after her marriage.[21][22][23]

The death of Zaynab coincided with the that of Abu Salamah, a devoted Muslim, as a result of his wounds from the Battle of Uhud.[22] Abu Salamah’s widow, Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya also a devoted Muslim, had none but her young children. Her plight reportedly saddened the Muslims, and after her iddah some Muslims proposed marriage to her; but she declined. When Muhammad proposed her marriage, she was reluctant for three reasons: she claimed to suffer from jealousy and pointed out the prospect of an unsuccessful marriage, her old age, and her young family that needed support. But Muhammad replied that he would pray to God to free her from jealousy, that he too was of old age, and that her family was like his family[citation needed]. She married Muhammad.[24] In 626, Raihanah bint Zaid, entered Muhammad’s household as a widow, as her husband had been executed along with the men of Banu Qurayza. The sources regarding his status differ, but she eventually converted to Islam and was married by Muhammad.[25]

[edit] Internal dissension

After Muhammad’s final battle against his Meccan enemies, he diverted his attention to stopping the Banu Mustaliq‘s raid on Medina. During this skirmish, Medinan dissidents, begrudging Muhammad’s influence, attempted to attack him in the more sensitive areas of his life, including his marriage to Zaynab bint Jahsh,[26] and an incident in which Aisha left her camp to search her lost necklace, and returned with a Companion of Muhammad.[27]

[edit] Zaynab bint Jahsh

Zaynab bint Jahsh was Muhammad’s cousin, being the daughter of one of his father’s sisters.[11] In Medina, Muhammad arranged Zaynab’s marriage, a widow, to Zayd ibn Harithah. Zaynab disapproved of the marriage and her brothers rejected it, because according to Ibn Sa’d, she was of aristocratic lineage and Zayd was a former slave.[28][29] Muhammad, however, was determined to establish the legitimacy and right to equal treatment of the adopted, Caesar E. Farah states.[30] Watt however states that it is not clear why Zaynab was unwilling to marry Zayd as Zayd was held in a high place in Muhammad’s esteem. Watt discusses the following two possibilities: being an ambitious woman, she was already hoping to marry Muhammad; and the other she may have been wanting to marry someone of whom Muhammad disapproved for political reason. In any case, Watt says, it is almost certain that she was working for marriage with Muhammad before the end of 626.[31] According to Maududi, the Qur’anic verse 33:36 was revealed,[32] thus Zaynab acquiesced and married Zayd. Zaynab’s marriage was unharmonious, and eventually became unbearable.[28]

According to Ibn Sa’d and Tabari, after the marriage, Muhammad went to pay Zayd a visit, but instead found Zaynab, scantily clad, and fell in love with her.[28][33] Zaynab told Zayd about this, and Zayd offered to divorce her, but Muhammad told him to keep her.[11] The story laid much stress on Zaynab’s perceived beauty and Muhammad’s supposedly disturbed set of mind.[34] William Montgomery Watt doubts the accuracy of this portion of the narrative, since it does not occur in the earliest source, and that it is unlikely that Muhammad was attracted since Zaynab (after Khadija) was the most elderly woman Muhammad married. He thinks that even if there is a basis of fact underlying the narrative, it is suspect to exaggeration in the course of transmission as the later Muslims liked to maintain that there was no celibacy and monkery in Islam.[29] Nomani considers this story to be a rumor.[35] Rodinson disagrees with Watt arguing that the story is stressed in the traditional texts and that it would not have aroused any adverse comment or criticism.[36]

The marriage seemed incestuous to Muhammad’s contemporaries because Muhammad was marrying the former wife of his adopted son, and the adopted sons were counted the same as a biological son.[11] According to Watt, this “conception of incest was bound up with old practices belonging to a lower, communalistic level of familial institutions where a child’s paternity was not definitely known; and this lower level was in process being eliminated by Islam.”[37] Muhammad’s decision to marry Zaynab was an attempt to break the hold of pre-Islamic ideas over men’s conduct in society.[citation needed] Initially, however, he was reluctant to marry Zaynab, fearing public opinion. The Qur’an, however, indicated that this marriage was a duty imposed upon him by God. Thus Muhammad, confident that he was strong enough to face public opinion, proceeded to reject these taboos.[38] When Zaynab’s waiting period was complete, Muhammad married her.[39] A prominent faction who held influence in the civic atmosphere in Medina, called “Hypocrites” in the Islamic tradition,[40] criticized the marriage as incestuous.[11] They spread rumors in an attempt to divide the Muslim community, as part of a strategy of attacking Muhammad through his wives.[40] However, the marriage was justified by verse 33:37 of the Qur’an,[11] which implied that treating adopted sons as real sons was objectionable, and that there should now be a complete break with the past.[11] According to Ibn Kathir, the verses were a “divine rejection” of the Hypocrites’ objections.[40] According to Rodinson, doubters argued the verses were in exact conflict with social taboos and favored Muhammad too much. The delivery of these verses, thus, did not end the dissent.[34]

[edit] Necklace incident

Aisha had accompanied Muhammad on his skirmish with the Banu Mustaliq. On the way back, Aisha lost her wedding necklace (a treasured possession), and Muhammad required the army to stop so that it could be found. Many in the army were indignant over the requirement, and the incident proved to be an embarrassment. The necklace was found, but during the same journey, Aisha lost it again. This time, she quietly slipped out in search for it, but by the time she recovered it, the caravan had moved on. She was eventually taken home by Safw’an bin Mu’attal.[41]

Rumors spread that something untoward had occurred although there were no witnesses to this.[27] Disputes arose, and the community was split into factions. Meanwhile, Aisha had been ill, and unaware of the stories. At first Muhammad himself was unsure of what to believe, but eventually trusted Aisha’s protestations of innocence.[41] Eventually verses were revealed, establishing her innocence, and condemning the slanders and the libel. Although the episode was uneasy for both Muhammad and Aisha, in the end it reinforced their mutual love and trust.[42]

[edit] Reconciliation

One of the captives from the skirmish with the Banu Mustaliq was Juwayriya bint al-Harith, who was the daughter of the tribe’s chieftain. When made captive, Juwayriya went to Muhammad requesting that she, as the daughter of the lord of the Mustaliq, be released. Meanwhile her father approached Muhammad with ransom to secure her release, but her captor refused to ransom her. Muhammad then offered to marry her, and she accepted.[43] When it became known that tribes persons of Mustaliq were kinsmen of the prophet of Islam through marriage, the Muslims began releasing their captives.[44] Thus, Muhammad’s marriage resulted in the freedom of nearly one hundred families from captivity.[45]

In the same year, Muhammad signed a peace treaty with his Meccan enemies, the Quraysh, effectively ending the state of war between the two parties. He soon married the daughter of the Quraysh leader, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, aimed at further reconciling his opponent.[46] He sent a proposal for marriage to Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan who was in Abyssinia at the time, when he learned her husband had died. She had previously converted to Islam (in Mecca) against her father’s will. After her migration to Abyssinia her husband had apostated to Christianity, and although she remained a steadfast Muslim, perhaps Muhammad feared that she too may apostate.[47] Muhammad dispatched ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damri with a letter to the Negus (king), asking him for Umm Habibah’s hand — that was in Muharram, in the seventh year of Al-Hijra.

In 629, after the Battle of Khaybar, Muhammad freed Safiyya bint Huyayy a noblewoman[48] of the defeated Jewish tribe Banu Nadir, from her captor Dihya and proposed marriage. Safiyya accepted. Scholars believe that Muhammad married Safiyya as part of reconciliation with the Jewish tribe and as a gesture of goodwill.[49][50] Safiyyah had been previously married to Kinana ibn al-Rabi, a commander who was executed, and before that to the poet Salaam ibn Mas̲h̲kam, who had divorced her.[48] [51] He then convinced Safiyya to convert to Islam and marry him.[52] Upon entering Muhammad’s household, Safiyya became friends with Aisha and Hafsa, and also offered gifts to Fatima. But when Muhammad’s other wives spoke ill of Safiyya’s Jewish descent, Muhammad intervened, pointing out to everyone that Safiyya’s “husband is Muhammad, father is Aaron, and uncle is Moses”, a reference to revered Islamic prophets.[53]

As part of the agreement of Hudaybiyah, Muhammad visited Mecca for the lesser pilgrimage. There Barra bint al-Harith proposed marriage to him.[54] Muhammad accepted, and thus married Barra, the sister-in-law of Abbas, a long time ally of his. By marrying her Muhammad also established kinship ties with the Makhzum, his previously fierce opponents.[55] As the Meccans didn’t allow him to stay any longer, Muhammad left the city, taking Barra with him. He called her “Maymuna” meaning blessed, as his marriage to her had also marked the first time in seven years when he could enter his hometown Mecca.[54]

Maria al-Qibtiyya was an Egyptian Coptic Christian slave, sent as a gift to Muhammad from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official.[56] She then served as Muhammad’s concubine, and some historians further state that he married her. Regardless, she bore him a son, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, who died in infancy. She is thus regarded as a Mother of Believers.

[edit] Muhammad’s widows

The extent of Muhammad’s property at the time of his death is unclear. Although Quran [2.180] clearly addresses issues of inheritance, Abu Bakr, the new leader of the Muslim ummah, refused to divide Muhammad’s property among his widows and heirs, saying that he had heard Muhammad say:

We (Prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity.[57]

Muhammad’s widow Hafsa played a role in the collection of the first Qur’anic manuscript. After Abu Bakr had collected the copy, he gave it to Hafsa, who preserved it until Uthman took it, copied it and distributed it in Muslim lands.[58]

Some of Muhammad’s widows were active politically in the Islamic state after Muhammad’s death. Safiyya, for example, aided the caliph Uthman during his siege.[53] During the first fitna, some wives also took sides. Umm Salama, for example, sided with Ali, and sent her son Umar for help.[59] The last of Muhammad’s wives, Umm Salama lived to hear about the tragedy of Karabala in 680, dying the same year.[59]

[edit] Family life

Muhammad and his family lived in small apartments adjacent the mosque at Medina. Each of these were six to seven spans wide and ten spans long. The height of the ceiling was that of an average man standing. The blankets were used as curtains to screen the doors.[60]

Muhammad helped out with the housework, such sewing clothes, and repairing shoes. He would usually do this for long periods of time, stopping only for prayers. Muhammad had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him. Muhammad’s wives distinguished his role as a prophet from his role as a husband. He did not allow his wives to use his status as a prophet to obtain special treatment in public.[61]

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Aleem, Shamim (2007). “12. Mothers of Believers”. Prophet Muhammad(s) and His Family. AuthorHouse. p. 85. ISBN 9781434323576.
  2. ^ Amira Sonbol, Rise of Islam: 6th to 9th century, Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures
  3. ^ Watt (1956), p.287
  4. ^ Esposito (1998), pp. 16–8.
  5. ^ F. E. Peters (2003), p.84
  6. ^ Esposito (1998), p.18
  7. ^ Bullough (1998), p. 119
  8. ^ Reeves (2003), p. 46
  9. ^ Muhammad al-Tijani in his The Shi’a: The Real Followers of the Sunnah on Al-Islam.org note 274
  10. ^ Muhammad Husayn Haykal. The Life of Muhammad: “From Marriage to Prophethood.” Translated by Isma’il Razi A. al-Faruqi
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Watt, “Aisha bint Abu Bakr”, Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
  12. ^ a b Nomani (1970), pg. 257-9
  13. ^ Barlas (2002), p.125-126
  14. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari 5:58:234, 5:58:236, 7:62:64 7:62:65,7:62:88, Sahih Muslim 8:3309, 8:3310,8:3311,Sunnan Abu Dawud 41:4915, 41:4917
  15. ^ Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7
  16. ^ Vacca, “Sawda bint Zama ibn Qayyis ibn Abd Shams”, Encyclopaedia of Islam
  17. ^ Nomani (1970), pg. 360
  18. ^ Watt(1956), pg.393
  19. ^ Watt(1956), pg.287
  20. ^ Lings (1983), p. 201
  21. ^ Lings (1983), p. 165
  22. ^ a b Lings (1983), p. 206
  23. ^ Nomani (1970), pg. 345
  24. ^ Umm Salamah. Courtesy of ISL Software. University of Southern California.
  25. ^ al-Baghdadi, Ibn Sa’d. Tabaqat. vol VIII, pg. 92–3.
  26. ^ Watt (1956), 330-1
  27. ^ a b Denise A. Spellberg, Aisha bint Abī Bakr, Encyclopedia of the Qur’an
  28. ^ a b c Freyer Stowasser (1996), p. 88, Oxford University Press
  29. ^ a b Watt (1974), page 158.
  30. ^ Caesar E. Farah, Islam: Beliefs and Observances, p.69
  31. ^ Watt (1974), page 157-158.
  32. ^ Maududi (1967), vol. 4, p. 108
  33. ^ Fishbein, Michael (February 1997). The History Al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. State University of New York Press. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-0791431504. “Zaynab had dressed in haste when she was told “the Messenger of God is at the door.” She jumped up in haste and excited the admiration of the Messenger of God, so that he turned away murmuring something that could scarcely be understood. However, he did say overtly: “Glory be to God the Almighty! Glory be to God, who causes the hearts to turn!””
  34. ^ a b Rodinson, page 207.
  35. ^ Nomani (1970). Sirat al-Nabi.
  36. ^ Rodinson, page 207.
  37. ^ William Montgomery Watt (1974), p.233
  38. ^ Watt(1956), p.330-1
  39. ^ Watt, page 156.
  40. ^ a b c Freyer Stowasser (1996), p. 89
  41. ^ a b Peterson (2007), page 169-71
  42. ^ Ramadan (2007), p. 121
  43. ^ Rodinson, page 196.
  44. ^ Lings (1983), pg. 241-2
  45. ^ Nomani, pg. 365-6
  46. ^ Watt (1961), p. 195
  47. ^ Umm Habibah: Ramlah Bin Abi Sufyan. IslamOnline.
  48. ^ a b Al-Shati’, 1971, 171
  49. ^ Nomani(1970) p. 424.
  50. ^ Watt (1964) p. 195
  51. ^ V. Vacca, Safiyya bt. Huyayy b. Ak̲htab, Encyclopedia of Islam
  52. ^ Rodinson (1971), p. 254.
  53. ^ a b Al-Shati’, 1971, 178-181
  54. ^ a b Al-Shati’, 1971, 222-224
  55. ^ Ramadan (2007), p. 1701
  56. ^ A. Guillaume (1955), p. 653
  57. ^ The Book of Jihad and Expedition (Kitab Al-Jihad wa’l-Siyar)“. USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts,. University of Southern California. pp. Chapter 16, Book 019, Number 4351. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/019.smt.html#019.4351. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
  58. ^ Al-Shati’, 1971, p. 110
  59. ^ a b Al-Shati’, 1971, p. 135
  60. ^ Numani, p. 259-60
  61. ^ Ramadan (2007), p. 168-9

[edit] References

[edit] Encyclopedias

[edit] External links

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